- Università di St Andrews
Università di St Andrews
lu Università di St Andrews (informally canusciutu comu St Andrews University o simpricimenti St Andrews; abbreviated cum'è St È, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) hè un British Universita di ricerca publica à St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. Hè u più anticu di l 'università fourancient of Scotland, è u terzu cchiù vecchi prima università in u mondu inglese-parlà (siquenti Oxford e Cambridge). St Andrews fu funnata tra 1410 e 1413, quannu lu Avignon Antipapa Benedict XIII scunnisciuti da un toru papali à un picculu gruppu fundazione di cleru di augustinian.
St Andrews hè cumpostu da una varietà di stituzzioni, cumpresi trè letteraria Custituenti (United College, Collège Santa Maria di Sala, è cullegiu di St Leonard) e 18 academic schools organised into four faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. L 'annu accademicu, hè spartutu in dui termini, Martinmas e Candlemas. In tempu di gruppo, over one-third of the town’s population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: più 120 nazziunalità, sò raprisintati cun più di 45% di a so sottumessu da paesi fora di l 'UK; circa unu-uttavu di i studianti sò da u restu di l 'Unione Europea, è a terza cullezzione sò da oltremare - 15% from North America alone. The university’s sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, ciotti, e lu purtamentu di Rochie accademicu, crustula.
Hè évalué comu lu terzu megghiu università in u Regnu Unitu in tavule Leia nazziunali, daretu à Oxbridge. The Guardian Insignamentu primu in the United Kingdom la lingua di Fisica e Astronomy, Li rapporti internaziunali, scienza dî compiuter, giugrafia, e Matimàtica, whilst the Complete University Guide ranks Divinity and Middle Eastern and African Studies first. lu Times Insignamentu Università Monde Rang de famille St Andrews à mezu à Top di u mondu 50 università di Social Sciences, Arte e Humanities. St Andrews hà u più altu di gruppo studenti (signu di primu) à mezu à tutte e università multi-dipartimentu in u Regnu Unitu.
St Andrews hà assai ancien incù e facultà alleata, nclusu un matematicu fisizianu, scinziati, curia, filòsufi, e li puliticanti. ancien recente cumprendi l 'anzianu Prima ministru di a Scozia Alex Salmond; Sicritariu di Statu di a Difesa Michael Fallon; HM British ammasciaturi a China Barbara Woodward; Stati Uniti d'America ammasciaturi a Ungheria Colleen Bell; Sacchini Olympic d'oru, medalist Chris Hoy; e royals Prince William, Duca di Cambridge, e Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. Sei Nobel Laureates sò à mezu à St Andrews’ ancien è anzianu bastone: dui in Chemistry e la fisioluggìa o Medicine, e unu ognunu in pace e letteratura.
St Andrews is a unique and captivating place, è l 'univirsitati eni na parti cintrali di u so addilettu. Setti seculi di a storia lià li studenti cu la ville, à pressu à l'antica, è ancu mudernu istitutu apparenti oghje. For those interested in visiting or moving to St Andrews we recommend taking a look at the town information, chì discrivi l 'attrezzi e pussibilità aperta à a cumunità lucali. Sì ancu pò truvà infurmazione nantu Ecumenical di l'Università, storia, e strategie di u futuru in a parti di sottu.
Nti l 'urtimu 600 anni, l 'Università di St Andrews hà stabilitu una reputazione comu unu di li centri di ricerca e riforme trattazzioni di u mondu. oghji, da noi arricumandata per una struttura di furmazione sòffice a basa annantu à a vostra scelta di specialism sughjettu o ricerchi, creating an environment which nurtures inquisitive minds and a culture of shared learning.
lingua / Università / Enrichetta / corsi di lingua / Vociaru
- Storia arte
- Storia antica
- Studi Classical
- scienza dî compiuter
- Biblical Studies
- novu Testamentu
- Theological Studies
- ecunumia & Finance
- English Language Teaching
- Studi Film (see Philosophical, Anthropological & Studi Film)
- giugrafia & Geosciences
- terra & Sciences ambientale
- Sviluppu durevule
- Li rapporti internaziunali
- matematica & statistiche
- Modern Lingue
- Arabic department
- Persian department
- Comparative literature department
- Philosophical, Anthropological & Studi Film
- Studi Film
- Antropolugia di a sucetà
- Fisica & Astronomy (Inc.. Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics)
- Psychology & Neuroscience
- Royal Conservatoire of Scotland (RCS)
- Antropolugia di a sucetà (see Philosophical, Anthropological & Studi Film)
- Zoccu distinchi (see Divinity)
Scottish students in the middle ages were forced abroad to pursue their studies, with no national university to develop their academic abilities. By 1410 most had been driven to Paris from Oxford and Cambridge by the Wars of Scottish Independence with England. So when the Catholic church was divided by two rival popes — with Pope Boniface IX supported by the French cardinals while Scotland remained faithful to Pope Benedict XIII — Scottish students found themselves in a difficult position. The time had come to establish a seat of learning, of international standing, back home in Scotland.
St Andrews was the obvious choice — the seat of the greatest bishopric in Scotland and location of a monastery noted as a centre for learning. in maghju di u 1410 a group of masters, mainly graduates of Paris, initiated a school of higher studies in St Andrews.
By February 1411 the school had established itself sufficiently to obtain a charter of incorporation and privileges from the Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw. This granted the masters and students recognition as a properly constituted corporation, duly privileged and safeguarded for the pursuit of learning. Tuttavia, recognised university status and the authority to grant degrees could only be conferred by the Pope or the Emperor as heads of Christendom.
Bishop Wardlaw turned to the exiled Pope Benedict XIII to seek his blessing. King James, despite being a prisoner of the English, added his weight to the petition. In return for Scotland’s loyalty, Pope Benedict readily agreed and on 28 Aostu 1413 full University status was conferred by a series of six papal bulls – one of which survives to this day in the University of St Andrews museum, MUSA.
So it was that the papal bulls began their five month journey, from the Spanish fortress in Peniscola where Pope Benedict was safely cloistered, over land and sea to St Andrews. They arrived in the town in February 1414 — to be welcomed with bells, bonfires, and great celebration.
The six bulls included the bull of foundation and a bull confirming Wardlaw’s charter of 1412. Although the text of all six is known, only the confirmation of Wardlaw’s grant survives in the original and still bears its bulla or lead seal.
The early years of the young university were not without turbulence. in 1426, King James tried to move the university to Perth. in 1470, several masters and students were expelled for attacking the Dean with bows and arrows. in 1544 the University banned beards, the carrying of weapons, gambling and football.
By the middle of the 16th century, St Andrews had grown to encompass three colleges — St Salvator’s (1450), St Leonard’s (1511) and St Mary’s (1538). The buildings of St Mary’s College and St Salvator’s Chapel date from this period.
From the 1500s to the 1700s the University enjoyed a period of mixed fortunes. During this time St Salvator’s and St Leonard’s Colleges joined to form the United College which still survives today in a greatly enlarged form.
In the 19th century the University made considerable progress in developing teaching and research in the arts, divinity and the biological and physical sciences. in 1897 the University was joined by a new academic centre in nearby Dundee and with it gained notable achievements in medical and applied science. This association ended in 1967 with the foundation of a separate University of Dundee.
In u 1980ini, St Andrews embarked on a broad programme of investment to boost its research capabilities, a strategy which has helped establish its reputation today as an international centre of research excellence.
in 2009, St Andrews became the first Scottish ancient to appoint a woman as Principal, recruiting Professor Louise Richardson from the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard, to lead it into its seventh century.
St Andrews recently celebrated 600 years of continuous existence during which time it has made an enduring contribution to the intellectual and cultural life of both Scotland and the wider world.
From mediaeval origins to modern thinking
International scholars have been coming to St Andrews to study, teachers to teach, and students to learn since the foundation in 1413. Through the centuries many great minds have been attracted to St Andrews:
- William Dunbar, pueta (MA, 1479).
- John Napier, the inventor of logarithms (studiente, 1563)
- James Gregory, designer of the Gregorian telescope (Regius professor of Mathematics, 1668).
- Benjamin Franklin (honorary Doctor of Laws, 1759).
- Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine (Campania, 1792).
- John Stuart Mill, philosopher and economist (Surghjenti, 1865).
- JM Barrie, author (Surghjenti, 1919).
- Rudyard Kipling, author (Surghjenti, 1922).
- Sir James Black, Nobel Prize winner in medicine (MB ChB, 1946).
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Da nutà: EducationBro Magazine chì vi dà a capacità à leghje cymbalaria università à 96 Lingua, ma no ti dumandu à rispittà altri membri è lascià missaghji in francese.