Universitato de Göttingen

Universitato de Göttingen

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la Universitato de Göttingen , konata neformale kiel Kartvelio Augusta, estas publika ampleksa esploro universitato en la urbo Göttingen, Germanio. fondita en 1734 de George II, Reĝo de Britio kaj Princelektisto de Hanovro, kaj komencante klasoj en 1737, la universitato estas la plej malnova en la stato de Malsupra Saksio kaj la plej granda en studenta rekrutado, kiuj staras ĉe ĉirkaŭ 26,000. Hejmo al multaj notis figuroj, ĝi reprezentas unu el la germanaj historiaj kaj tradiciaj institucioj. Göttingen estis nomita “la urbo de scienco”.

Göttingen estas unu el la plej prestiĝaj universitatoj en Germanio, antaŭe apogita de la germanaj universitatoj Excellence Initiative. Kun membreco en Coimbra Group kaj ĉirkaŭ 45 Nobel-premiitoj, la universitato ĝuas grandan internacian renomon. La universitato subtenas fortajn rilatojn kun gravaj esplorinstitutoj bazita en Göttingen ankaŭ, speciale la de la Max Planck Socio por la Akcelo de Scienco kaj la Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community. kun proksimume 4.5 milionoj volumoj, la Göttingen Ŝtato kaj University Library rangas inter la plej grandaj bibliotekoj en Germanio.

Surbaze de liaj atingoj en esplorado kaj instruado, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen serĉas realzar lia internacia reputacio de koncentranta sur liaj specialaj fortoj:

  • internacieco – pliigintoj ĝia kapablo altiri sciencistoj, akademiuloj kaj studentoj el eksterlando; ekspansio de internaciaj retoj kaj partnerecoj por subtenanta esploron kaj junaj sciencistoj
  • Science bazita instruado kaj lernado – disvolviĝo de esploroj rilatigitaj studo programoj kaj occupationally-orientigita trejnado kaj plua edukado kursoj, diplomiĝinto lernejoj, kaj junior esploro grupoj en kiuj junaj akademiuloj kaj sciencistoj konduki sendependan esploradon
  • Interdisciplinarity kaj diverseco – intensigante la kunlaborado inter la homaroj kaj la sociaj, natura kaj vivsciencoj, kaj konservo de temo diverseco en la interesoj de problemo-solvado plasmar la estonteco
  • aŭtonomeco – fortigante la mem-respondeco de la Universitato kiel Publika juro Fundamento, inkluzive ankaŭ tiun de liaj tabuloj, fakultatoj kaj institucioj
  • Kunlaboro kun ne-institucioj universitarias – etendante kaj institucionalizar la kunlaborado kun taŭga esploro starigoj en scienco, komerco kaj la komunumo

lernejoj / kolegioj / fakoj / kursoj / fakultatoj


Historio


en 1734, King George II of Great Britain, who was also Elector of Hanover, gave his Prime Minister in Hanover, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, the order to establish a university in Göttingen to propagate the ideas of academic freedom and enlightenment at the times of the European Enlightenment. komence, the only new buildings constructed for the opening of the university were a riding hall and a fencinghouse, while courses were taught in the Paulinerkirche and associated Dominican monastery, or in the homes of professors. No university auditorium was built until well into the 19th century.

Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 volumoj.

In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. en 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.

By the university’s centenary in 1837, ĝi estis konata kiel la “university of law”, as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university’s students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..

However, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 en 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicistWilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.

In the 19th century, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, andRudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory ofculpa in contraendoand wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on theWall”, now known asBismarck Cottage”. According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.

Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and

en 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades. en 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl’s students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.

el 1921 al 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, kiu, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.

datiĝi, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called theGöttingen Nobel prize wonder”.

The German inventor of the jet engine, Pabst von Ohain, also studied aerodynamics in Goettingen under Ludwig Prandtl.

Social studies and the study of humanities continued to flourish. Edmund Husserl, the philosopher and known as the father ofphenomenology, taught here. Max Weber, the sociologist studied here for one term.

Dum tiu tempo, the German language became an international academic language. A number of dissertations in the UK and the US had German titles. One might be considered having had a complete academic training only when one had studied in Germany. tiel, many American students were proud of having studied in Germany, and the University of Göttingen had profound impacts on the US. A number of American politicians, advokatoj, historians and writers received their education from both Harvard and Göttingen. Ekzemple,Edward Everett, once Secretary of State and President of Harvard University, stayed in Göttingen for two years of study. George Ticknor spent two years studying classics in Göttingen. John Lothrop Motley, a diplomat and historian, even had personal friendship with Otto von Bismark during his two-year-long study in Göttingen. George Bancroft, a politician and historian, even received his PhD from the University of Göttingen in 1820.

Post la Dua Mondmilito, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. poste, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here.Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.

Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.

Dum tiu periodo, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.

 


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