- Universiteit fan St Andrews
Universiteit fan St Andrews
De Universiteit fan St Andrews (ynformiel ek bekend as St Andrews Universiteit of gewoan St Andrews; ôfkoarte as st En, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, yn post-nominals) is in Britske iepenbiere ûndersyk universiteit yn St Andrews, Fife, Skotlân. It is de âldste fan de fourancient universiteiten fan Skotlân en de tredde âldste universiteit yn de Ingelske-sprekkende wrâld (folgjende Oxford en Cambridge). St Andrews waard oprjochte tusken 1410 en 1413, doe't de Avignon Antipope Benediktus XIII útjûn in pauslike bolle oan in lyts oprjochtsjen groep fan augustynske geastliken.
St Andrews is opboud út in ferskaat oan ynstellings, ynklusyf trije Constituent hegeskoallen (Feriene College, St Mary s College, en St Leonard fan College) en 18 academic schools organised into four faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. It akademysk jier is ferdield yn twa termen, Martinmas en Candlemas. Yn term tiid, over one-third of the town’s population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: oer 120 nasjonaliteiten binne fertsjintwurdige mei oer 45% fan syn intake út lannen bûten it Feriene Keninkryk; oer ien-achtste fan de learlingen binne út 'e rest fan' e EU en de oerbleaune tredde binne út oerseeske - 15% from North America alone. The university’s sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, mei dip, en it dragen fan karakteristike akademyske jurk.
It is ranked as de tredde bêste universiteit yn de Feriene Keninkryk yn de nasjonale kompetysje tabellen, efter Oxbridge. De wachter ranks earst yn it Feriene Keninkryk de Skoallen fan Physics en Astronomy, Ynternasjonale relaasjes, Komputer wittenskip, Geografy, en Wiskunde, whilst the Complete University Guide ranks Divinity and Middle Eastern and African Studies first. De Times Heger Underwiis World universiteiten Ranglist nammen St Andrews ûnder de wrâld fan Top 50 universiteiten foar Sosjale Wittenskippen, Arts en Geasteswittenskippen. St Andrews hat de heechste studint tefredenheid (joint earste) by alle multi-fakulteit universiteiten yn it Feriene Keninkryk.
St Andrews hat in protte notabele alumni en Affiliated fakulteit, ynklusyf emininte wiskundigen, wittenskippers, teologen, filosofen, en politisy. Resinte alumni binne de eardere Earste Minister fan Skotlân Alex Salmond; Sekretaris fan Steat foar Ferdigening Michael Fallon; HM Britske ambassadeur oan Sina Barbara Woodward; Feriene Steaten ambassadeur nei Hongarije Colleen Bell; Olympyske cycling gouden medallist Chris Hoy; en royals Prins Willem, Hartoch fan Cambridge, en Catherine, Hartoginne fan Cambridge. Seis Nobel Laureates binne tusken St Andrews’ alumni en eardere meiwurkers: twa yn Skiekunde en de Fysiology of Genêskunde, en ien elk yn Peace en letterkunde.
St Andrews is a unique and captivating place, en de Universiteit is in kaaiûnderdiel fan syn sjarme. Sân ieuwen fan skiednis keppele 'e learlingen mei de stêd, liedend nei de âlde en dochs moderne ynstelling skynbere hjoed. For those interested in visiting or moving to St Andrews we recommend taking a look at the town information, dy't beskriuwt de foarsjennings en mooglikheden iepen foar de lokale mienskip. Jo kinne ek ynformaasje fine oer de Universiteit fan bestjoer, skiednis, en strategy foar de takomst yn 'e paragrafen hjirûnder.
Over de lêste 600 jier, de Universiteit fan St Andrews hat oprjochte in reputaasje as ien fan de wrâld syn liedend ûndersyk en ûnderwiis sintra. Hjoed, biede wy in fleksibele graad struktuer basearre op jo kar fan ûnderwerp spesjalisaasje of ûndersyk, creating an environment which nurtures inquisitive minds and a culture of shared learning.
skoallen / Colleges / Departeminten / kursussen / fakulteiten
- ancient History
- Classical Studies
- Komputer wittenskip
- Biblical Studies
- Nij testamint
- Theological Studies
- ekonomy & Finânsjes
- English Language Teaching
- film Studies (see Philosophical, Anthropological & film Studies)
- Geografy & Geosciences
- Ierde & Miljeu Wittenskippen
- duorsume Untjouwing
- Ynternasjonale relaasjes
- Wiskunde & Statistyk
- Modern Languages
- Arabic department
- Persian department
- Comparative literature department
- Philosophical, Anthropological & film Studies
- film Studies
- Sosjaal Antropology
- natuerkunde & Stjerrekunde (inc. Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics)
- psychology & Neuroscience
- Royal Conservatoire of Scotland (RCS)
- Sosjaal Antropology (see Philosophical, Anthropological & film Studies)
- teology (see Divinity)
Scottish students in the middle ages were forced abroad to pursue their studies, with no national university to develop their academic abilities. Troch 1410 most had been driven to Paris from Oxford and Cambridge by the Wars of Scottish Independence with England. So when the Catholic church was divided by two rival popes — with Pope Boniface IX supported by the French cardinals while Scotland remained faithful to Pope Benedict XIII — Scottish students found themselves in a difficult position. The time had come to establish a seat of learning, of international standing, back home in Scotland.
St Andrews was the obvious choice — the seat of the greatest bishopric in Scotland and location of a monastery noted as a centre for learning. Yn maaie 1410 a group of masters, mainly graduates of Paris, initiated a school of higher studies in St Andrews.
By February 1411 the school had established itself sufficiently to obtain a charter of incorporation and privileges from the Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw. This granted the masters and students recognition as a properly constituted corporation, duly privileged and safeguarded for the pursuit of learning. lykwols, recognised university status and the authority to grant degrees could only be conferred by the Pope or the Emperor as heads of Christendom.
Bishop Wardlaw turned to the exiled Pope Benedict XIII to seek his blessing. King James, despite being a prisoner of the English, added his weight to the petition. In return for Scotland’s loyalty, Pope Benedict readily agreed and on 28 augustus 1413 full University status was conferred by a series of six papal bulls – one of which survives to this day in the University of St Andrews museum, MUSA.
So it was that the papal bulls began their five month journey, from the Spanish fortress in Peniscola where Pope Benedict was safely cloistered, over land and sea to St Andrews. They arrived in the town in February 1414 — to be welcomed with bells, bonfires, and great celebration.
The six bulls included the bull of foundation and a bull confirming Wardlaw’s charter of 1412. Although the text of all six is known, only the confirmation of Wardlaw’s grant survives in the original and still bears its bulla or lead seal.
The early years of the young university were not without turbulence. Yn 1426, King James tried to move the university to Perth. Yn 1470, several masters and students were expelled for attacking the Dean with bows and arrows. Yn 1544 the University banned beards, the carrying of weapons, gambling and football.
By the middle of the 16th century, St Andrews had grown to encompass three colleges — St Salvator’s (1450), St Leonard’s (1511) and St Mary’s (1538). The buildings of St Mary’s College and St Salvator’s Chapel date from this period.
From the 1500s to the 1700s the University enjoyed a period of mixed fortunes. During this time St Salvator’s and St Leonard’s Colleges joined to form the United College which still survives today in a greatly enlarged form.
In the 19th century the University made considerable progress in developing teaching and research in the arts, divinity and the biological and physical sciences. Yn 1897 the University was joined by a new academic centre in nearby Dundee and with it gained notable achievements in medical and applied science. This association ended in 1967 with the foundation of a separate University of Dundee.
Yn de jierren 1980, St Andrews embarked on a broad programme of investment to boost its research capabilities, a strategy which has helped establish its reputation today as an international centre of research excellence.
Yn 2009, St Andrews became the first Scottish ancient to appoint a woman as Principal, recruiting Professor Louise Richardson from the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard, to lead it into its seventh century.
St Andrews recently celebrated 600 years of continuous existence during which time it has made an enduring contribution to the intellectual and cultural life of both Scotland and the wider world.
From mediaeval origins to modern thinking
International scholars have been coming to St Andrews to study, teachers to teach, and students to learn since the foundation in 1413. Through the centuries many great minds have been attracted to St Andrews:
- William Dunbar, dichter (MA, 1479).
- John Napier, the inventor of logarithms (studint, 1563)
- James Gregory, designer of the Gregorian telescope (Regius professor of Mathematics, 1668).
- Benjamin Franklin (honorary Doctor of Laws, 1759).
- Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine (MD, 1792).
- John Stuart Mill, philosopher and economist (rector, 1865).
- JM Barrie, author (rector, 1919).
- Rudyard Kipling, author (rector, 1922).
- Sir James Black, Nobel Prize winner in medicine (MB ChB, 1946).
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