- University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
apèsi sou lekòl la
nan University of Göttingen , li te ye enfòmèlman kòm Georgia Augusta, se yon piblik konplè inivèsite rechèch nan vil la nan Göttingen, Almay. Te fonde an 1734 pa George II, , Wa peyi Grann Bretay ak elektè nan Hanover, ak kòmanse klas nan 1737, inivèsite a se pi ansyen an nan eta a nan Lower Saxony ak pi gwo a nan enskripsyon elèv, ki vle di nan alantou 26,000. Lakay yo nan anpil figi te note, li reprezante youn nan enstitisyon istorik ak tradisyonèl Almay la. Göttingen te rele “vil la nan syans”.
Göttingen se youn nan inivèsite yo pi prestijye nan Almay, deja sipòte pa Alman inivèsite Ekselans Inisyativ la. Avèk rapòte nan Coimbra Group ak toupatou nan 45 Pri nobèl gayan, inivèsite a jwi gwo nonmen non entènasyonal. Inivèsite a kenbe koneksyon solid ak gwo enstiti rechèch ki baze nan Göttingen kòm byen, sitou sa yo nan sosyete a Max Planck pou Avansman Syans ak Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Syantifik kominote a. avèk apeprè 4.5 milyon dola komèsan, Göttingen Eta ak University Bibliyotèk la Hang nan mitan bibliyotèk yo pi gwo nan Almay.
Sou baz la nan reyalizasyon li yo nan rechèch ak ansèyman, Georg-Out-Universität Göttingen ap chèche entansifye repitasyon entènasyonal li yo pa konsantre sou fòs espesyal li yo:
- entèrnasyonalite – amelyore kapasite li nan atire syantis, entelektyèl ak elèv ki soti nan aletranje; ekspansyon nan rezo entènasyonal yo ak patenarya pou ankouraje rechèch ak jèn syantis
- Rechèch ki baze sou ansèyman ak aprantisaj – devlopman nan pwogram etid ki gen rapò ak rechèch ak fòmasyon profesyonèlman-oryantasyon ak kou edikasyon plis, lekòl gradye, ak gwoup rechèch jinyò nan ki entelektyèl jèn ak syantis fè endepandan rechèch
- Entèdisplinante ak divèsite – intensification kolaborasyon ki genyen ant Syans imanitè yo ak sosyal nan, natirèl ak syans lavi, ak prezèvasyon nan divèsite sijè nan enterè yo sou pwoblèm pou rezoud nou prepare avni la
- otonomi – ranfòse pwòp tèt ou-responsablite a nan Inivèsite a kòm yon Fondasyon Lwa Piblik, ki gen ladan tou sa yo ki an ankadreman li yo, kapasite ak enstitisyon
- Koperasyon ak enstitisyon ki pa inivèsite – pwolonje ak enstitisyonalizasyon kolaborasyon la ak établissements rechèch apwopriye nan syans, komès ak kominote a
Lekòl / kolèj / depatman / kou / kapasite
nan 1734, King George II of Great Britain, who was also Elector of Hanover, gave his Prime Minister in Hanover, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, the order to establish a university in Göttingen to propagate the ideas of academic freedom and enlightenment at the times of the European Enlightenment. Initially, the only new buildings constructed for the opening of the university were a riding hall and a fencinghouse, while courses were taught in the Paulinerkirche and associated Dominican monastery, or in the homes of professors. No university auditorium was built until well into the 19th century.
Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. pa 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 komèsan.
In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. nan 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.
By the university’s centenary in 1837, li te li te ye tankou “university of law”, as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university’s students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..
Sepandan, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 nan 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicistWilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.
In the 19th century, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, andRudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory of “culpa in contraendo” and wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on the “Wall”, now known as “Bismarck Cottage”. According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.
Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. pa 1900, David Hilbert and
nan 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades. nan 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl’s students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.
Soti nan 1921 to 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, ki, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
To date, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the “Göttingen Nobel prize wonder”.
The German inventor of the jet engine, Pabst von Ohain, also studied aerodynamics in Goettingen under Ludwig Prandtl.
Social studies and the study of humanities continued to flourish. Edmund Husserl, the philosopher and known as the father ofphenomenology, taught here. Max Weber, the sociologist studied here for one term.
Pandan tan sa a, the German language became an international academic language. A number of dissertations in the UK and the US had German titles. One might be considered having had a complete academic training only when one had studied in Germany. Se konsa, many American students were proud of having studied in Germany, and the University of Göttingen had profound impacts on the US. A number of American politicians, avoka, historians and writers received their education from both Harvard and Göttingen. Pa egzanp,Edward Everett, once Secretary of State and President of Inivèsite Harvard, stayed in Göttingen for two years of study. George Ticknor spent two years studying classics in Göttingen. John Lothrop Motley, a diplomat and historian, even had personal friendship with Otto von Bismark during his two-year-long study in Göttingen. George Bancroft, a politician and historian, even received his PhD from the University of Göttingen in 1820.
Apre Dezyèm Gè Mondyal la, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. apre sa, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here.Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.
Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.
During this period, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.
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