- Humboldt University o Berlin
Humboldt University o Berlin
The Humboldt University o Berlin is one of Berlin’s oldest universities, whakaturia i runga i 15 nuku 1810 rite te University o Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) i te ohaoha reforomatio mātauranga Prussia me linguistWilhelm von Humboldt, Kua kaha te awe tauira whare wānanga nei te tahi atu whare wānanga Pākehā, me te Western. Mai 1828 I mohiotia tenei e rite te Frederick William University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), a muri (ēngari) ano rite te University den unter Linden i muri i tona wāhi i roto i te whare o mua o Prince Henry o Prussia (1726-1802) e tona teina, Kingi Frederick II, i hanga hoki ia i waenganui i 1748 a 1753 i runga i te huarahi unter den Linden. I roto i 1949, ke reira tona ingoa ki University Humboldt i roto i te kororia o rua ona Wilhelm kaiwhakarewa, me tona teina, matawhenua Alexander von Humboldt. I roto i 2012, te University Humboldt o Berlin ko tetahi o whare wānanga German ma tahi ki te riro i roto i te German Universities Kairangi Initiative, he whakataetae ā-motu mō te whare wānanga whakaritea e te Kawanatanga Federal Tiamana. Kua ako te whare wānanga 29 Nobel Prize winners and is considered one of the most prestigious universities in Europe overall as well as one of the most prestigious universities worldwide for arts and humanities.
E whakaahuareka tatou e hiahia i roto i te haapiiraa i Humboldt-Universität mo te wāhanga ranei he tau koutou. He matua ki te whakaaro Humboldtian o te mātauranga kanorau o te matauranga me ngā rerekētanga i roto i te whakaako ia ratou. Ngā ākonga International e hiahia ana ki te noho wahi o te akoranga i Humboldt-Universitaet kua whakauru hoki te tohu i konei ranei e rawa pōwhiri. whai wāhi ratou to ratou tohungatanga, me te ao tirohanga mātauranga ki te huinga mātauranga, hoatu ha faingamālie ki mohio e pā ana ki ētahi atu momo o te matauranga, me te tahi atu ahurea i roto i te mātauranga teitei ākonga Humboldt. E papu tatou e, e taea ki te whakatutuki i te ako ngā putanga whakaturia koutou i roto i ki te whiwhi mātauranga e rua, me te koe ahurea i te ngongo matauranga te ara Humboldt.
Tena tango mōhio e kore ngā ākonga te ao kore e nei wahi o te hōtaka utu, me te e mau i te karahipi e te māngai whakaaetia, taea anake e whakaurua ki te ākonga tohu-kore i roto i ngā take rawa.
Ka whakahoki te whārangi e whai ake nei he maha ngā pātai, me te tohu i roto i ngā tohutohu ki te tūhura. Hoki te hunga hiahia i roto i te whiwhi i te tirohanga e pā ana ki te akoranga patua i roto i te reo Ingarihi i roto i te wāhanga o nāianei, Ka taea te kitea i konei he hopuāhua.
kura / Colleges / tari / kōhi / aravihi
- Manga Ture
- Faculty o Pāngarau me Sciences Natural (Geography, Pūtaiao rorohiko, Pāngarau, matū, ahupūngao)
- Faculty o Life Sciences (Agriculture and Horticulture, koiora, Psychology)
- Charité – Berlin University Medicine
- Faculty of Philosophy I (Philosophy, Hītori, European Ethnology, Department of Library and Information Science)
- Faculty of Philosophy II (Literature, Linguistics, Scandinavian Studies, Romance literatures, English and American Studies, Slavic Studies, Classical Philology)
- Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (Sciences Social, Cultural Studies/Arts, Asian/African Studies (includes Archeology), Studies Ira, Sport science, RehabilitationStudies, Mātauranga, Quality Management in Education)
- Faculty o Theology
- Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
he first semester at the newly founded Berlin university occurred in 1810 ki 256 ngā ākonga, me te 52 lecturers in faculties of law, rongoā, theology and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz. The university has been home to many of Germany’s greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck. The founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s. The university is home to 29 toa Nobel.
The structure of German research-intensive universities, such as Humboldt, served as a model for institutions like Johns University Hopkins. I tua atu, it has been claimed that “the ‘Humboldtian’ university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist.”
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, ture, rapunga whakaaro, hītori, theology and medicine, Berlin University developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker,Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow andRobert Koch, contributed to Berlin University’s scientific fame.
During this period of enlargement, Berlin University gradually expanded to incorporate other previously separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Charité, the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. I roto i 1717, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, nei i roto i 1727 was rechristened by the “soldier king” Friedrich Wilhelm: “Es soll das Haus die Charité heißen” (It will be called Charité [French for charity]). Na roto i te 1829 the site became Berlin University’s medical campus and remained so until 1927 when the more modern University Hospital was constructed.
Berlin University started a natural history collection in 1810, e, e 1889 required a separate building and became the Museum für Naturkunde. The preexisting Tierarznei School, whakaturia i roto i 1790 and absorbed by the university, i roto i 1934 formed the basis of the Veterinary Medicine Facility (Grundstock der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät). Also the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule Berlin (Agricultural University of Berlin), whakaturia i roto i 1881 was affiliated with the Agricultural Faculties of the University.
I muri 1933, like all German universities, it was affected by the Nazi regime. The rector during this period was Eugen Fischer. It was from the university’s library that some 20,000 books by “degenerates” and opponents of the regime were taken to be burned on May 10 of that year in the Opernplatz (now the Bebelplatz) for a demonstration protected by the SA that also featured a speech by Joseph Goebbels. A monument to this can now be found in the center of the square, consisting of a glass panel opening onto an underground white room with empty shelf space for 20,000 volumes and a plaque, bearing an epigraph from an 1820 work by Heinrich Heine: “Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen” (“This was but a prelude; where they burn books, they ultimately burn people”).
The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Tiamana “Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums”) resulted in 250 Jewish professors and employees being fired during 1933/1934 and numerous doctorates being withdrawn. Students and scholars and political opponents of Nazis were ejected from the university and often deported. During this time nearly one third of all of the staff were fired by the Nazis.
The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) ordered (Befehl-Nr. 4) the opening of the university in January 1946. The SMAD wanted a redesigned Berlin University based on the Soviet model, however they insisted on the phrasing “newly opened” and not “re-opened” for political reasons. The president of the German Central Administration for National Education (DZVV), Paul Wandel, in his address at the January 29, 1946, opening ceremony, said: “I spoke of the opening, and not of the re-opening of the university. The University of Berlin must effectively start again in almost every way. You have before you this image of the old university. What remains of that is nought but ruins.” The teaching was limited to seven departments working in reopened, war-damaged buildings, with many of the teachers dead or missing. Heoi, by the winter semester of 1946, the Economic and Educational Sciences Faculty had re-opened.
The Workers and Peasants Faculty (Tiamana: Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Fakultät) (ABF), an education program aimed at young men who, due to political or racial reasons, had been disadvantaged under the Nazis, was established at the university during this time. This program existed at Berlin University until 1962.
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