University of Erlangen Nuremberg

University of Erlangen Nuremberg

University of Erlangen Nuremberg Maklumat

Mendaftar di Universiti Erlangen Nuremberg

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University of Erlangen Nuremberg merupakan sebuah universiti penyelidikan awam di bandar-bandar Erlangen dan Nuremberg di Bavaria, Jerman. Nama Friedrich-Alexander datang dari pengasas pertama universiti itu Friedrich, Margrave Brandenburg-Bayreuth, dan dermawan yang Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave Brandenburg-Ansbach.

Di German, tradisional universiti seni liberal biasanya tidak mempunyai sekolah kejuruteraan atau jabatan. Walau bagaimanapun, FAU memang mempunyai fakulti kejuruteraan berbeza.

FAU merupakan universiti negeri yang kedua terbesar di negeri Bavaria yang. Ia ada 5 fakulti, 23 jabatan / sekolah, 30 jabatan-jabatan klinikal, 19 jabatan autonomi, 656 profesor, 3,404 kakitangan akademik dan kira-kira 13,000 pekerja.

Dalam semester musim sejuk 2014/15 sekitar 39,085 pelajar (Termasuk 3,556 pelajar asing) mendaftar di universiti di 239 bidang pengajian, dengan kira-kira 2/3 belajar di kampus Erlangen dan baki 1/3 di kampus Nuremberg. Statistik ini meletakkan FAU dalam senarai teratas 10 universiti terbesar di Jerman.

dalam 2013, 5251 pelajar menamatkan pengajian di universiti dan 663 kedoktoran dan 50 tesis pasca kedoktoran telah didaftarkan. lebih-lebih lagi, FAU menerima 171 juta Euro (2013) pembiayaan luar pada tahun yang sama, menjadikannya salah satu universiti kuat dibiayai pihak ketiga di Jerman.

dalam 2006 dan 2007, sebagai sebahagian daripada inisiatif kecemerlangan negara, FAU telah dipilih oleh Yayasan Penyelidikan Jerman sebagai salah seorang pemenang dalam Inisiatif Kecemerlangan Jerman Universiti. FAU juga ahli DFG (Yayasan Penyelidikan Jerman) dan Pengurus Top Industrial untuk rangkaian Eropah.

Dalam Kedudukan Akademik Universiti-universiti Dunia bagi tahun 2014, FAU kedudukan kedua di kalangan universiti Jerman Kejuruteraan / Teknologi dan kumpulan Sains Komputer bagi semua empat parameter kedudukan TOP, FUN, HiCi dan PUB.

sekolah / kolej / jabatan / kursus / fakulti


  • Fakulti Kemanusiaan, Sains Sosial, dan Teologi
  • Fakulti Perniagaan, ekonomi, dan Undang-Undang
  • Fakulti Perubatan
  • Fakulti Sains
  • Fakulti Kejuruteraan

Sejarah


1743 - Universiti diasaskan oleh Friedrich Margrave Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Universiti Dalam Erlangen telah ditubuhkan pada semangat mutlak pencerahan. Fungsi universiti Jerman pada abad kelapan belas adalah untuk memenuhi keperluan banyak penguasa dengan membuat peruntukan bagi pendidikan dan latihan kakitangan awam untuk meningkatkan reputasi pemuka.

Ini juga merupakan sumber utama motivasi untuk Margrave Friedrich Brandenburg-Bayreuth yang mengasaskan Friedrichs-Universität dalam Principality beliau dalam 1743 dengan bantuan Margravess Wilhelmine dan Canselor pertama Universiti, Daniel de Superville.

Ia universiti ketiga yang ditubuhkan pada Franconia, selepas universiti-universiti di Altdorf dan Würzburg, dan telah menetap di bandar imperial Erlangen di akademi bekas satria yang terletak di Hauptstraße. Pembukaan rasmi Universiti berlaku pada 4 November 1743, acara yang masih diperingati setiap tahun di academicus dies.
1769 - Universiti dikembangkan oleh Margrave Alexander

Di peringkat awal, Universiti di Erlangen adalah salah satu institusi terkecil seumpamanya. Sejumlah 64 pelajar telah mendaftar di Universiti baru dalam tahun asas dan diajar oleh 16 profesor; purata bilangan pelajar kekal pada sekitar 200 untuk beberapa waktu.

Beberapa dekad pertama kewujudan universiti ini dibantu oleh masalah ekonomi sejak margraviate Brandenburg-Bayreuth adalah agak kecil dan tidak terutamanya kaya. Ia bukan sehingga 1769, apabila Bayreuth garis pupus dan margraviate Brandenburg-Bayreuth bersatu dengan yang Brandenburg-Ansbach, lakukan University Frederick yang diberikan asas kewangan yang lebih kukuh. Dalam penghormatan Margrave Alexander, pemerintah baru, yang juga menjadi penaung besar pertama Universiti, Universiti telah ditukar nama Friedrich-Alexander-Universität pada tahun yang sama.

Lingkungan tradisional disiplin telah diajar dalam fakulti Teologi, Undang-undang, Perubatan dan Falsafah. Selain istana Hohenzollern yang, sebagai rumah kepada janda, hanya memainkan peranan awam yang marginal, bandar margravial kecil Erlangen tidak penting politik, institusi ekonomi atau budaya, dan profesor Universiti kini memperoleh status yang agak besar dalam masyarakat di bandar ini.
1810 - Franconia menjadi sebahagian daripada Bavaria

Lima puluh tahun selepas penubuhannya, Universiti menjalani perubahan besar akibat daripada pergolakan politik. Peralihan kuasa kepada kerajaan Prusia dalam 1792, kepada empayar Perancis di 1806 dan akhirnya mahkota Bavarian dalam 1810 mengubah University margravial ke dalam institusi negeri yang dikendalikan. Walaupun ini bermakna bahawa ia kehilangan banyak autonomi, seperti bidang kuasanya sendiri dan hak istimewa yang diberikan kepada warga universiti, ia juga bertambah baik kewangan Universiti.

Bilangan pelajar telah meningkat dan kekal stabil pada sekitar 400 pada masa ini. Rancangan untuk memusatkan pendidikan universiti di Universiti Landshut, ditetapkan oleh Menteri Bavaria Negeri, Maximilian Joseph Montgelas, bermakna bahawa pada awal abad kelapan belas masa depan Universiti telah terjejas pada lebih dari sekali. Ia berhutang kewujudannya akhirnya kepada fakta bahawa ia mempunyai satu-satunya fakulti teologi Protestan di Bavaria. Telah ini tidak terus wujud, semua pelajar Bavarian teologi Protestan, yang jumlahnya telah berkembang dengan ketara akibat daripada integrasi Franconia baru-baru ini ke dalam Bavaria, akan terpaksa untuk belajar di luar Bavaria.
1818 - The Schloss secara rasmi didermakan kepada Universiti

dalam 1818, Universiti memperoleh sejumlah besar bangunan baru. Selepas kematian Sophie Caroline, isteri kedua pengasas Universiti, yang telah bermastautin di Erlangen sebagai janda bangsawan sejak 1764, King Maximilian I Yusuf dari Bavaria menderma Schloss, yang Schlossgarten, tanaman jeruk dan lain-lain bangunan yang sebelum ini dimiliki oleh margraves kepada Universiti.

Separuh pertama abad kesembilan belas juga menyaksikan pembaharuan utama Wilhelm von Humboldt terhadap konsep pendidikan universiti, di mana beliau menyokong gabungan penyelidikan dan pengajaran. Kuliah yang sebelum ini tertumpu kepada pendekatan tegas pentafsiran kepada kerja-kerja standard kini memberi tumpuan kepada metodologi kajian akademik dan bimbingan ke arah penyelidikan bebas.
1824 - Hospital Universiti Erlangen diasaskan
Pembinaan Hospital Universiti Erlangen, hospital di bahagian timur Schlossgarten, telah projek bangunan utama yang pertama yang dilaksanakan oleh Universiti dan telah disiapkan pada 1824. Pembangunan yang pesat ke arah pembezaan semakin meningkat antara mata pelajaran, dan bidang penyelidikan baru dalam bidang perubatan dan sains pada separuh kedua abad kesembilan belas diperlukan pembinaan banyak bangunan baru di sekitar Schlossgarten dan bersama-sama Universitätsstraße, yang datang untuk membentuk teras Universiti. Bangunan yang paling menarik dari tempoh ini adalah Kollegienhaus (1889), anatomi dan patologi bangunan (1897 dan 1906) dan Perpustakaan Universiti (1913).
1890 - Pihak Universiti mempunyai purata satu ribu pelajar
Pengembangan saiz pergi tangan dalam tangan dengan penciptaan pelbagai jabatan baru dengan institusi dalam diri mereka yang, berbeza daripada jabatan-jabatan, bukan sahaja mengajar disiplin akademik tetapi juga menjalankan kajian bebas. bilangan pelajar juga meningkat dengan ketara pada separuh kedua abad kesembilan belas. Dalam semester musim panas 1890, jumlah pelajar yang mendaftar mengungguli 1000 tanda buat kali pertama,

yang bermaksud bahawa Universiti menduduki 15 antara 21 universiti di Empayar Jerman dari segi saiz. Perkembangan ini juga secara radikal mengubah hubungan antara Universiti dan bandar. Manakala imej Erlangen dalam abad kelapan belas telah ditentukan oleh dagangan Huguenot dan kraf, pada abad kesembilan belas Universiti mula memainkan peranan yang semakin penting.

Antara profesor yang paling terkenal yang mengajar di Universiti adalah ahli teologi Adolf von Harless yang, peguam Kristian kebahagiaan, profesor perubatan Franz Penzoldt, sejarah Karl Hegel yang, ahli falsafah Ludwig Feuerbach yang, profesor Jerman Benno von Wiese, profesor pengajian oriental dan penyair Friedrich Rückert, ahli matematik Max Noether yang, fizik Eilhard Wiedemann yang, ahli kimia Emil dan Otto Fischer, ahli botani Johann Christian Daniel Schreber yang, ahli farmasi Theodor dan Ernst Martius, zoologi Enoch Zander yang, dan ahli geologi Bruno von Freyberg yang.

Beberapa pelajar terkenal Erlangen 's termasuk theologist Wilhelm Lohe yang, peguam dan negarawan Prussian Karl Freiherr von Stein kepada Old Stone, doktor Samuel Hahnemann yang, penulis Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck, Daniel Schubart dan Ogos Graf von Platen, ahli kimia Justus von Liebig yang, fizik Georg Simon Ohm dan ahli matematik Emmi Noether yang.
1920 - The Pro-rektor menjadi Rektor

Tercetusnya Perang Dunia Pertama di 1914 mempunyai kesan yang besar ke atas Universiti. Pada hari yang pertama mobilisasi, yang Kollegienhaus , Schloss dan beberapa jabatan di Universitätsklinikum Erlangen telah ditukar kepada hospital yang cedera. Kira-kira tiga suku daripada pelajar terjejas oleh pengerahan atau pendaftaran sukarela. Ini membawa kepada penurunan yang besar dalam jumlah pelajar yang terus belajar. Pada tahun-tahun perang terdapat biasanya hanya kira-kira 300 pelajar di dalam Erlangen.

Peristiwa-peristiwa dalam Bavarian Revolusi 1918 dan 1919 dan pemansuhan seterusnya monarki bermakna bahawa gelaran 'Rektor Magnificentissimus' yang sebelum ini telah dilahirkan oleh raja pemerintah sekarang hilang. Oleh itu, jawatan Pro-rektor telah ditukar kepada 'Rektor (magnificus)'dalam 1920. Begitu juga, istilah 'Pro-rektor' digantikan tajuk sebelumnya Exprorektor '. Bagi kebanyakan pelajar, tahun-tahun selepas Perang Dunia Pertama telah ditandai oleh kemiskinan dan ramai pelajar dari latar belakang miskin datang ke Universiti dengan harapan untuk membina masa depan baru untuk diri mereka sendiri walaupun persekolahan sederhana mereka.

Inflation and the bankruptcy of numerous scholarship organisations added to their plight. The Student Representatives Committee was founded in 1919 and was followed in 1922 by what is now the Studentenwerk (Perkhidmatan pelajar) yang, dalam 1930, opened the Studentenhaus that still stands on Langemarktplatz today. On the whole, bagaimanapun, after its rapid growth in the middle of the nineteenth century, the 1920s were a period of stagnation for the University.
1928 – The Faculty of Sciences is founded
The increasing importance of the natural sciences that became so apparent in the second half of the nineteenth century led to a change in the University’s structure. dalam 1928, the natural sciences were separated off what was then the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences and given faculty status of their own.
1933 – The University’s autonomy falls prey to National Socialism
A nationalistic climate of opinion had already clearly been in evidence at University in Erlangen during the Weimar Republic, dan pada bulan November 1929, the German National Socialist Student Association gained an absolute majority of the seats in the Student Representatives Committee elections for the first time at any German university. During the years of Nazi dictatorship, Erlangen was not spared any of the events that also occurred at other universities, such as the dismissal of professors unwilling to toe the party line, the book burnings of May 1933, or the inclusion of subjects that conformed to Nazi ideology, such as ‘race research’.

The University’s academic autonomy was removed during the Nazi period and the Führer principle was also applied to the university constitution, as the rector was no longer elected by the professorial body but was appointed by the Reichsminister of academic affairs. As happened at universities across Germany at this time, student numbers in Erlangen dropped greatly as a result of the Nazi educational policy.
1945 – The University undergoes reconstruction

By the end of the Second World War, Erlangen was the only university town in Germany, other than Heidelberg, which had almost entirely escaped destruction. Students flocked to the University when teaching resumed in the winter semester 1945/46, and there were five times as many students as before the war. Whereas in the summer semester 1927 there had been 1340 students and ten years later there had been 967, by the summer semester 1947, Universiti mempunyai 5316 pelajar.

Walau bagaimanapun, as the other German universities gradually reopened their doors, the numbers in Erlangen began to drop again towards the end of the 1950s, so that by the winter semester 1956/57, Erlangen was the smallest university in West Germany.

The University now needed to provide enough new buildings to house all of its departments and institutes. In an attempt to preserve the University’s character with its individual buildings clustered together in the city centre, the new buildings were not constructed on a campus site isolated from the town centre, as was the case elsewhere, but were instead built on a variety of central sites which had previously served other purposes.

This was the case with the old barracks in Bismarckstraße, where a new complex for law, teologi, humanities and social sciences was unveiled in 1953. Further new buildings followed in the city centre, in particular for the Faculty of Medicine, such as the Department of Neurosurgery in 1978, which was built on Schwabachanlage where previously the psychiatric clinic had stood.

The most notable expansion which took place at the University in the 1960s was in the field of engineering. The post-war need to modernise provided the impetus to add a department of engineering, a wish that had been expressed as early as 1903. Staff at the Faculty of Sciences now expressed the need for an independent faculty for electrical and mechanical engineering, which was given the support of the senate in 1957.
1961 – The Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences is founded

Shortly after these additions, the University expanded in a different direction by incorporating the municipally-funded college of business, economics and social sciences in Nuremberg, ditubuhkan pada 1919, into the University to form what was then its sixth faculty. From then on the University adopted the name under which it is known today, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.

The teaching of economics and business administration, which had until this point played only a minor role in what was then the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Erlangen, could now be carried out on a much larger scale on its own site in Nuremberg. This amalgamation accelerated the growth in student numbers which reached a new peak at the end of the 1960s.
1966 – The Faculty of Engineering is founded

dalam 1962, after lengthy debate, the Bavarian parliament finally decided to establish a Faculty of Engineering in Erlangen. In this respect, the University had won out against the city of Nuremberg which had been requesting that a technical university be established in Nuremberg for decades.

Since the expansive areas of building land required for this project were not available in the centre of Erlangen, the foundations for a new university campus were laid in the south east of the city in 1964. The formal establishment of the Faculty of Engineering, which became the seventh faculty at FAU at the time, took place in 1966. Pada masa ini, the University was the only institution in Germany with a faculty of engineering which was integrated into the existing structures of a classical research university and not set up as an autonomous university.
1968 – The student movement develops
At FAU, seperti di tempat lain, the following years were dominated by the student movement, a movement which was to have such long-lasting effects on academic life. The student protests, which affected universities throughout Germany, were initially a response to issues which were purely university-related, such as poor study conditions. dalam 1969, the student movement grew more radical and became an instrument of opposition to the political system in general. In cooperation with other social groups, this grew into what became known as the extra-parliamentary opposition movement.

There was a great confrontation, particularly in the debate over the Bavarian Higher Education Act of 1974, sections of which banned student representatives from exercising a general political mandate, and over the German Higher Education Act of 1976. These years also brought about many changes to the University’s public image, as many long-established traditions were abolished. There was an end to professors wearing gowns and, dalam 1968, the celebration of Founder’s Day, the ‘dies academicus’, which until then had been held in the Baroque splendour of the Redoutensaal, was transferred to the rather less flamboyant ambience of the Auditorium Maximus where it has taken place ever since.
1972 – The Faculty of Education is founded
The Faculty of Education was established in 1972, becoming the University’s eighth faculty at the time. It grew out of the Institute for Teacher Training which was established in 1956 and later upgraded in 1958 to become the Pädagogische Hochschule Nürnberg, a teacher training college, before becoming a faculty at FAU. oleh 2007, Universiti mempunyai 11 fakulti, as the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences was divided into two independent faculties and the Faculty of Sciences was spilt into three others.

FAU reached a new milestone in the winter semester 1991/92 bila, for the first time, it had over 30,000 pelajar. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, sekitar 40 percent of students were enrolled in the faculties of Theology and Law, but starting in second half of the twentieth century a large percentage of the student population were drawn towards the newer disciplines of engineering and of business administration, ekonomi dan sosial sains.
2000 – New reforms take place

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg is faced with new challenges. The extension of the buildings on the Südgelände (southern campus) and the erection of new buildings in the city centre are currently changing the physical appearance of the University. dalam 2000, the Nikolaus Fiebiger Centre of Molecular Medicine on Glückstraße replaced the former physics building and 2001 saw the opening of the new Röthelheim Campus on the site of the old artillery barracks. The first phase of construction for the new non-surgical centre was begun in 2002.

The University was quick to implement the changeover to the new Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees as prescribed by the Bavarian State Ministry of Sciences, Research and the Arts, and these degree programmes replaced the former Diplom and Magister programmes by the end of the decade.

tambahan pula, in order to retain an competitive position on an international scale and meet the challenges of the future, the Senate voted on 7 Februari 2007 to carry out a comprehensive reform of the University’s structure. Oleh itu, in the winter semester 2007/08, the eleven faculties were reorganised into the five faculties which the University has today. These faculties are sub-divided into departments with internal structures which are designed to strengthen existing collaborations and create possibilities for new ones.


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