- University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
The University of Göttingen , tsebahala sa reroang joalokaha Georgia Augusta, ke setjhaba pharaletseng haholoanyane ho etsa lipatlisiso univesithing ea toropong ea Göttingen, Germany. thehiloe ka 1734 ke George II, Morena oa Great Britain le Elector ea Hanover, 'me ho qala litlelase tsa 1737, yunivesithi e ke khale ka ho fetisisa profinseng ea Saxony Lower le leholo ka ho fetisisa ngoliso seithuti se, e leng e emela ho pota 26,000. Home ho lipalo tse ngata ho boletsoe, le emela e mong oa setsi sa mekhatlo e bohlokoahali historing le tsa moetlo Jeremane. Göttingen 'nile tsa bitsoa “tse lulang motseng oa saense ea bitsoang”.
Göttingen ke e mong oa liunivesithi tummeng ka ho fetisisa Jeremane, tse neng tšehetsoang ke Jeremane liunivesithing bokhabane Bohato ba Pele. Le setho sa Coimbra Group le ho pota 45 bafenyi Khau ea Nobel, yunivesithi e thabela e khōlō renown ea machaba ea. Yunivesithi e lula dikgokelo matla le hloma kgolo etsa lipatlisiso tse thehiloeng a Göttingen hammoho, haholo-holo ba sa Max Planck Society bakeng sa Pele tsa Science le Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community. le hoo e ka bang 4.5 limilione tse meqolo e, ea Göttingen State University le Library palo har'a lilaebrari kholo ka ho fetisisa Jeremane.
Motheong oa li finyeletseng eona ho etsa lipatlisiso le ho ruta, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen batla ho heighten botumo ba eona ea machaba ea ka go tlhoma tlhaloganyo mo mabapi le makhabane yona khethehileng:
- Internationality – matlafatsa bokhoni ba eona ho hohela bo-rasaense, litsebi le liithuti tse tsoang linaheng tse ling; katoloso ea marangrang ba machaba le ba bolekane bakeng kgothalletso etsa lipatlisiso 'me bacha-rasaense
- Research e thehiloeng ho ruta le ho ithuta – tsoelo-pele ea manane a ntlafatso a etsa lipatlisiso tse amanang le ho ithuta le koetliso occupationally-orientated le dikhoso thuto ka ho eketsehileng, likolo graduate, le lihlopha tse etsa lipatlisiso selemong sa boraro a ka ao litsebi ba banyenyane le bo-rasaense tsamaisa etsa lipatlisiso ikemetseng
- Interdisciplinarity le mefuta-futa e – matlafatsa tshebedisano ya pakeng tsa le botho le ea batho ba, saense ea tlhaho le bophelo, 'me sireletsoa ha taba ea ho ipeha tlas'a mefuta-futa a bona molemong oa ho rarolla mathata ho ama nako e tlang
- boikemelo – ba matlafatsa intša boikarabelo ba University e le Molao Public Foundation, ho akarelletsa le ea tsa mapolanka ea eona, magorong le mekhatlo
- Sebelisana le ditheo tsa bao e seng tsa univesithi – extending le institutionalizing ea kopanelo le le ditheo phuputso e nepahetseng litabeng tsa saense, khoebo le sechabeng
Likolo / Colleges / mafapha / Courses / ba magoro
ka 1734, King George II of Great Britain, who was also Elector of Hanover, gave his Prime Minister in Hanover, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, the order to establish a university in Göttingen to propagate the ideas of academic freedom and enlightenment at the times of the European Enlightenment. qalong, the only new buildings constructed for the opening of the university were a riding hall and a fencinghouse, while courses were taught in the Paulinerkirche and associated Dominican monastery, or in the homes of professors. No university auditorium was built until well into the 19th century.
Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 meqolo.
In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. ka 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.
By the university’s centenary in 1837, e ne e tsejoa e le “university of law”, as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university’s students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..
Leha ho le joalo, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 ka 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicistWilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.
Lekholong la bo19 la lilemo, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, andRudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory of “culpa in contraendo” and wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on the “Wall”, now known as “Bismarck Cottage”. According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.
Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and
ka 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades. ka 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl’s students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.
From 1921 ho 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, ea ileng a, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
Ho fihla joale, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the “Göttingen Nobel prize wonder”.
The German inventor of the jet engine, Pabst von Ohain, also studied aerodynamics in Goettingen under Ludwig Prandtl.
Social studies and the study of humanities continued to flourish. Edmund Husserl, the philosopher and known as the father ofphenomenology, taught here. Max Weber, the sociologist studied here for one term.
Nakong ena, the German language became an international academic language. A number of dissertations in the UK and the US had German titles. One might be considered having had a complete academic training only when one had studied in Germany. Kahoo, many American students were proud of having studied in Germany, and the University of Göttingen had profound impacts on the US. A number of American politicians, liakhente, historians and writers received their education from both Harvard and Göttingen. Ka mohlala,Edward Everett, once Secretary of State and President of University Harvard, stayed in Göttingen for two years of study. George Ticknor spent two years studying classics in Göttingen. John Lothrop Motley, a diplomat and historian, even had personal friendship with Otto von Bismark during his two-year-long study in Göttingen. George Bancroft, a politician and historian, even received his PhD from the University of Göttingen in 1820.
Ka mor'a Ntoa ea II ea Lefatše, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. hamorao, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here.Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.
Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.
Nakong ena, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.
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