- University of Erlangen Nuremberg
University of Erlangen Nuremberg
University of Erlangen Nuremberg ay isang pampublikong unibersidad pananaliksik sa mga bayan ng Erlangen at Nuremberg sa Bavaria, Alemanya. Ang pangalan Friedrich-Alexander ay nagmumula sa unang founder ng unibersidad Friedrich, Magreib ng Brandenburg-Bayreuth, at ang tagapag-ampon Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Magreib ng Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Sa Germany, tradisyunal na liberal arts unibersidad ay hindi karaniwang magkaroon ng isang engineering school o departamento. gayunman, FAU ay magkaroon ng isang natatanging engineering faculty.
FAU ay ang ikalawang pinakamalaking unibersidad ng estado sa estado Bavaria. ito ay may 5 faculties, 23 kagawaran / paaralan, 30 clinical mga kagawaran, 19 autonomous kagawaran, 656 propesor, 3,404 mga kasapi ng akademikong kawani at halos 13,000 empleyado.
Sa taglamig semestre 2014/15 sa paligid 39,085 mag-aaral (kabilang 3,556 banyagang mag-aaral) naka-enroll sa unibersidad sa 239 larangan ng pag-aaral, na may tungkol sa 2/3 pag-aaral sa Erlangen campus at ang mga natitirang 1/3 sa Nuremberg campus. Ang mga istatistika ilagay FAU sa listahan ng top 10 pinakamalaking unibersidad sa Germany.
Sa 2013, 5251 mga mag-aaral ay nagtapos mula sa unibersidad at 663 doctorates at 50 post-ng doktor theses ay nakarehistro. higit sa rito, FAU natanggap 171 milyong Euro (2013) panlabas na pagpopondo sa parehong taon, ginagawa itong isa sa mga strongest mga third-party na pinondohan unibersidad sa Germany.
Sa 2006 at 2007, bilang bahagi ng pambansang kahusayan inisyatiba, FAU ay napili sa pamamagitan ng ang Aleman Research Foundation bilang isa sa mga nanalo sa German unibersidad Excellence Initiative. FAU ay isa ring miyembro ng DFG (Aleman Research Foundation) at ang Top Industrial Managers para sa Europa network.
Sa Academic Ranking of World Universities para sa taong 2014, FAU pangalawang ranggo sa German unibersidad sa Engineering / Teknolohiya at Computer Sciences grupo para sa lahat ng apat na ranggo parameter TOP, FUN, HiCi at pUB.
Paaralan / Mga kolehiyo / departamento / Kurso / faculties
- Faculty of Humanities, Mga agham panlipunan, at Theology
- Faculty of Business, ekonomika, at Batas
- Faculty of Medicine
- Faculty of Sciences
- Faculty of Engineering
1743 - Ang University ay itinatag sa pamamagitan ng magreib Friedrich ng Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Ang University sa Erlangen ay itinatag sa ang espiritu ng napaliwanagan absolutism. Ang pag-andar ng German unibersidad sa ikalabing-walo siglo ay upang maglingkod sa mga pangangailangan ng maraming mga pamunuan sa pamamagitan ng paggawa probisyon para sa edukasyon at pagsasanay ng mga sibil tagapaglingkod upang mapahusay ang reputasyon ng prinsipe.
Ito ay din ang pangunahing mapagkukunan ng pagganyak para magreib Friedrich ng Brandenburg-Bayreuth sino ang nagtatag ng-Universität Friedrichs sa kanyang principality in 1743 sa tulong ng Margravess Wilhelmine at ang unang kanselor ng Unibersidad, Daniel de Superville.
Ito ay ikatlong unibersidad na itinatag sa Franconia, pagkatapos ng unibersidad of Altdorf at Würzburg, at ito ay batay sa imperyal lungsod ng Erlangen sa academy ang dating kabalyero na matatagpuan sa Hauptstraße. Ang opisyal na pagbubukas ng University ay naganap noong 4 Nobyembre 1743, isang kaganapan na kung saan ay pa rin commemorated sa bawat taon sa dies academicus.
1769 - Ang University ay pinalaki sa pamamagitan ng magreib Alexander
Sa kanyang unang araw, Unibersidad sa Erlangen ay isa sa mga pinakamaliit na institusyon ng uri nito. Isang kabuuan ng 64 mag-aaral ay nakatala sa bagong University sa taon ng pundasyon nito at tinuruan 16 propesor; ang average na bilang ng mga mag-aaral ay nanatili sa paligid 200 para sa ilang oras.
Ang unang ilang dekada ng unibersidad ang pag-iral ay minarkahan sa pamamagitan ekonomiyang mga problema dahil ang margraviate ng Brandenburg-Bayreuth ay relatibong maliit at hindi lalo mayaman. Ito ay hindi hanggang 1769, kapag ang Bayreuth line namatay out at ang margraviate ng Brandenburg-Bayreuth ay nagbalik sa na ng Brandenburg-Ansbach, na Universität Friedrichs-ay ibinigay ng isang mas matatag na financial na batayan. Sa karangalan ng magreib Alexander, ang mga bagong pinuno, na isa ring upang maging ang University unang dakilang patron, Unibersidad ay pinalitan Friedrich-Alexander-Universität sa parehong taon.
Ang tradisyunal na hanay ng mga disiplina ay itinuro sa loob ng faculties ng Theology, batas, Medicine at Pilosopiya. Bukod sa mga Hohenzollern palasyo kung saan, bilang ang tahanan ng Dowager, lamang ang naglaro ng isang marginal pampublikong role, ang maliit na margravial lungsod ng Erlangen ay walang mahalagang pampulitika, pang-ekonomiya o kultural na institusyon, at ang University propesor ngayon nakuha malaki status sa loob ng lipunan sa lungsod.
1810 - Franconia ay nagiging bahagi ng Bavaria
Limampung taon matapos ang kanyang pundasyon, Unibersidad ay sumailalim sa malaking pagbabago bilang isang resulta ng pampulitikang pagbabago. Ang paglipat ng kapangyarihan sa Prussian crown in 1792, sa French empire in 1806 at sa wakas sa Bavarian crown in 1810 transformed sa margravial University sa isang state-run institusyon. Habang ito nangangahulugang ang mga ito nawala marami ng kanyang pagsasarili, tulad ng kanyang sariling nasasakupan at ang mga espesyal na pribilehiyo na ipinagkaloob sa ang unibersidad ng mamamayan, ito rin ay pinahusay na sa University ni pananalapi.
Ang bilang ng mga mag-aaral ay risen at nanatiling hindi gumagalaw sa paligid 400 sa oras na ito. Ang mga plano upang magsagitna ang unibersidad na edukasyon sa University of Landshut, inilagda ng Bavarian Ministro ng Estado, Maximilian Joseph Montgelas, nangangahulugang ang sa simula ng ikalabing-walo siglo sa hinaharap ng Unibersidad ay jeopardized sa higit sa isang pagkakataon. Ito ay inutang kaligtasan ng buhay nito sa huli sa ang katunayan na ito ay nagkaroon ang tanging guro ng protestante teolohiya sa Bavaria. Had ito hindi ay patuloy na umiiral, ang lahat ng mga Bavarian mag-aaral ng protestante teolohiyang, na ang mga numero ay lumago makabuluhang bilang resulta ng mga kamakailan-lamang na pagsasama ni Franconia sa Bavaria, sana ay nai-sapilitang upang mag-aral sa labas Bavaria.
1818 - Ang Schloss opisyal na donasyon sa Unibersidad
Sa 1818, Unibersidad nakuha ng isang makabuluhang bilang ng mga bagong gusali. Matapos ang pagkamatay ng Sophie Caroline, ang pangalawang asawa ng ang nagtatag ng Unibersidad, na tumira sa Erlangen bilang kanyang dowager since 1764, donasyon Hari Maximilian I Joseph ng Bavaria sa Schloss, ang Schlossgarten, ang Orangery at iba pang mga gusali na dating pag-aari ng margraves sa Unibersidad.
Ang unang kalahati ng ikalabinsiyam na siglo ring nakita Wilhelm von Humboldt pangunahing reporma ng ang konsepto ng unibersidad na edukasyon, kung saan siya advocated ang kumbinasyon ng mga pananaliksik at pagtuturo. Lectures which had previously concentrated on a strictly exegetic approach to standard works now focused on the methodology of academic study and guidance towards independent research.
1824 – Universitätsklinikum Erlangen is founded
The construction of Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, the hospital in the eastern part of the Schlossgarten, was the first major building project undertaken by the University and was completed in 1824. The rapid development towards growing differentiation between the subjects, and the new research areas in medicine and the sciences in the second half of the nineteenth century necessitated the construction of numerous new buildings around the Schlossgarten and along Universitätsstraße, which came to form the core of the University. The most striking buildings from this period are the Kollegienhaus (1889), the anatomy and pathology buildings (1897 at 1906) and the University Library (1913).
1890 – The University has an average of one thousand students
The expansion in size went hand in hand with the creation of numerous new departments with institutes within them which, as distinct from the departments, not only taught academic disciplines but also conducted independent research. Student numbers also increased markedly in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the summer semester 1890, the number of students enrolled topped the 1000 mark for the first time,
meaning that the University ranked number 15 kabilang sa 21 universities in the German Empire in terms of size. This development also radically changed the relationship between the University and the city. Whereas Erlangen’s image in the eighteenth century had been determined by the Huguenot trades and crafts, in the nineteenth century the University began to play an increasingly significant role.
Among the most famous professors who taught at the University were the theologian Adolf von Harleß, the lawyer Christian von Glück, the professor of medicine Franz Penzoldt, the historian Karl Hegel, the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach, the professor of German Benno von Wiese, the professor of oriental studies and poet Friedrich Rückert, the mathematician Max Noether, the physicist Eilhard Wiedemann, the chemists Emil and Otto Fischer, the botanist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, the pharmacists Theodor and Ernst Martius, the zoologist Enoch Zander, and the geologist Bruno von Freyberg.
Some of Erlangen ‘s famous students include the theologist Wilhelm Löhe, the lawyer and Prussian statesman Karl Freiherr von Stein zum Altenstein, the doctor Samuel Hahnemann, the writers Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck, Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart and August Graf von Platen, the chemist Justus von Liebig, the physicist Georg Simon Ohm and the mathematician Emmi Noether.
1920 – The Pro-rector becomes the Rector
The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 had a considerable effect on the University. On the very first day of mobilisation, the Kollegienhaus , the Schloss and several departments at Universitätsklinikum Erlangen were converted into hospitals for the wounded. Around three quarters of the students were affected by conscription or voluntary enrolment. This led to an enormous drop in the numbers of students who continued to study. During the war years there were usually only about 300 students present in Erlangen.
The events of the Bavarian Revolution of 1918 at 1919 and the subsequent abolition of the monarchy meant that the title ‘Rector Magnificentissimus’ which had previously been born by the ruling monarch now disappeared. The office of Pro-rector was therefore changed to ‘Rector (Magnificus)’ in 1920. nang katulad, the term ‘Pro-rector’ replaced the previous title ‘Exprorektor’. For most students, the years immediately after the First World War were marked by poverty and many students from poor backgrounds came to the University in the hope of building new futures for themselves despite their modest schooling.
Inflation and the bankruptcy of numerous scholarship organisations added to their plight. The Student Representatives Committee was founded in 1919 and was followed in 1922 by what is now the Studentenwerk (Services Student) kung saan, sa 1930, opened the Studentenhaus that still stands on Langemarktplatz today. On the whole, gayunman, after its rapid growth in the middle of the nineteenth century, the 1920s were a period of stagnation for the University.
1928 – The Faculty of Sciences is founded
The increasing importance of the natural sciences that became so apparent in the second half of the nineteenth century led to a change in the University’s structure. Sa 1928, the natural sciences were separated off what was then the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences and given faculty status of their own.
1933 – The University’s autonomy falls prey to National Socialism
A nationalistic climate of opinion had already clearly been in evidence at University in Erlangen during the Weimar Republic, and in November 1929, the German National Socialist Student Association gained an absolute majority of the seats in the Student Representatives Committee elections for the first time at any German university. During the years of Nazi dictatorship, Erlangen was not spared any of the events that also occurred at other universities, such as the dismissal of professors unwilling to toe the party line, the book burnings of May 1933, or the inclusion of subjects that conformed to Nazi ideology, such as ‘race research’.
The University’s academic autonomy was removed during the Nazi period and the Führer principle was also applied to the university constitution, as the rector was no longer elected by the professorial body but was appointed by the Reichsminister of academic affairs. As happened at universities across Germany at this time, student numbers in Erlangen dropped greatly as a result of the Nazi educational policy.
1945 – The University undergoes reconstruction
By the end of the Second World War, Erlangen was the only university town in Germany, other than Heidelberg, which had almost entirely escaped destruction. Students flocked to the University when teaching resumed in the winter semester 1945/46, and there were five times as many students as before the war. Whereas in the summer semester 1927 there had been 1340 students and ten years later there had been 967, by the summer semester 1947, Unibersidad ay nagkaroon 5316 mag-aaral.
gayunman, as the other German universities gradually reopened their doors, the numbers in Erlangen began to drop again towards the end of the 1950s, so that by the winter semester 1956/57, Erlangen was the smallest university in West Germany.
The University now needed to provide enough new buildings to house all of its departments and institutes. In an attempt to preserve the University’s character with its individual buildings clustered together in the city centre, the new buildings were not constructed on a campus site isolated from the town centre, as was the case elsewhere, but were instead built on a variety of central sites which had previously served other purposes.
This was the case with the old barracks in Bismarckstraße, where a new complex for law, teolohiya, humanities and social sciences was unveiled in 1953. Further new buildings followed in the city centre, in particular for the Faculty of Medicine, such as the Department of Neurosurgery in 1978, which was built on Schwabachanlage where previously the psychiatric clinic had stood.
The most notable expansion which took place at the University in the 1960s was in the field of engineering. The post-war need to modernise provided the impetus to add a department of engineering, a wish that had been expressed as early as 1903. Staff at the Faculty of Sciences now expressed the need for an independent faculty for electrical and mechanical engineering, which was given the support of the senate in 1957.
1961 – The Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences is founded
Shortly after these additions, the University expanded in a different direction by incorporating the municipally-funded college of business, economics and social sciences in Nuremberg, itinatag sa 1919, into the University to form what was then its sixth faculty. From then on the University adopted the name under which it is known today, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.
The teaching of economics and business administration, which had until this point played only a minor role in what was then the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Erlangen, could now be carried out on a much larger scale on its own site in Nuremberg. This amalgamation accelerated the growth in student numbers which reached a new peak at the end of the 1960s.
1966 – The Faculty of Engineering is founded
Sa 1962, after lengthy debate, the Bavarian parliament finally decided to establish a Faculty of Engineering in Erlangen. In this respect, the University had won out against the city of Nuremberg which had been requesting that a technical university be established in Nuremberg for decades.
Since the expansive areas of building land required for this project were not available in the centre of Erlangen, the foundations for a new university campus were laid in the south east of the city in 1964. The formal establishment of the Faculty of Engineering, which became the seventh faculty at FAU at the time, took place in 1966. Sa oras na ito, the University was the only institution in Germany with a faculty of engineering which was integrated into the existing structures of a classical research university and not set up as an autonomous university.
1968 – The student movement develops
At FAU, as elsewhere, the following years were dominated by the student movement, a movement which was to have such long-lasting effects on academic life. The student protests, which affected universities throughout Germany, were initially a response to issues which were purely university-related, such as poor study conditions. Sa 1969, the student movement grew more radical and became an instrument of opposition to the political system in general. In cooperation with other social groups, this grew into what became known as the extra-parliamentary opposition movement.
There was a great confrontation, particularly in the debate over the Bavarian Higher Education Act of 1974, sections of which banned student representatives from exercising a general political mandate, and over the German Higher Education Act of 1976. These years also brought about many changes to the University’s public image, as many long-established traditions were abolished. There was an end to professors wearing gowns and, sa 1968, the celebration of Founder’s Day, the ‘dies academicus’, which until then had been held in the Baroque splendour of the Redoutensaal, was transferred to the rather less flamboyant ambience of the Auditorium Maximus where it has taken place ever since.
1972 – The Faculty of Education is founded
The Faculty of Education was established in 1972, becoming the University’s eighth faculty at the time. It grew out of the Institute for Teacher Training which was established in 1956 and later upgraded in 1958 to become the Pädagogische Hochschule Nürnberg, a teacher training college, before becoming a faculty at FAU. sa pamamagitan ng 2007, Unibersidad ay nagkaroon 11 faculties, as the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences was divided into two independent faculties and the Faculty of Sciences was spilt into three others.
FAU reached a new milestone in the winter semester 1991/92 kailan, for the first time, it had over 30,000 mag-aaral. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, sa paligid 40 percent of students were enrolled in the faculties of Theology and Law, but starting in second half of the twentieth century a large percentage of the student population were drawn towards the newer disciplines of engineering and of business administration, economics at agham panlipunan.
2000 – New reforms take place
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg is faced with new challenges. The extension of the buildings on the Südgelände (southern campus) and the erection of new buildings in the city centre are currently changing the physical appearance of the University. Sa 2000, the Nikolaus Fiebiger Centre of Molecular Medicine on Glückstraße replaced the former physics building and 2001 saw the opening of the new Röthelheim Campus on the site of the old artillery barracks. The first phase of construction for the new non-surgical centre was begun in 2002.
The University was quick to implement the changeover to the new Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees as prescribed by the Bavarian State Ministry of Sciences, Research and the Arts, and these degree programmes replaced the former Diplom and Magister programmes by the end of the decade.
Furthermore, in order to retain an competitive position on an international scale and meet the challenges of the future, the Senate voted on 7 Pebrero 2007 to carry out a comprehensive reform of the University’s structure. nang alinsunod, in the winter semester 2007/08, the eleven faculties were reorganised into the five faculties which the University has today. These faculties are sub-divided into departments with internal structures which are designed to strengthen existing collaborations and create possibilities for new ones.
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