- Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Details
- Country : Russian Federation
- City : Moscow
- Acronym : MIPT
- Founded : 1946
- Students (approx.) : 5000
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Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology is a leading Russian university that trains students in various fields of modern science and technology.
MIPT was set up on September 17, 1951 by Resolution#3517-1635 of the Soviet Cabinet of Ministers on the basis of the Department of Physics and Technology at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The department started working on November 25, 1946. On October 1, 1951, the resolution was approvedby executive order of the Soviet Education Ministry. On November 2, 2009, MIPT was granted the status of National Research University by the Russian government.
MIPT has a very rich history. Its founders included academicians Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semenov and Sergey Khristianovich. Its first professors were Nobel Prize winners Kapitsa, Semenov and Lev Landau, and its first rector was Ivan Petrov. There are Nobel Prize winners among MIPT’s graduates as well. Many MIPT professors are leading Russian scientists, including over 80 members of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
From the outset, MIPT has used a unique system for training specialists, known as the Phystech System, which combines fundamental science, engineering disciplines and student research.
With a history rich in major events and longstanding traditions, MIPT pays well-deserved attention to its symbols. MIPT has an original emblem, which embodies its devotion to science.
Schools / Colleges / Departments / Courses / Faculties
Department of Radio Engineering and Cybernetics
Since 1952 we have concentrated on studies in electrical engineering and cybertechnology. Our students combine fundamental studies with research activities related to contemporary issues in the fields of wireless systems, solid-state devices, control theory, learning systems, signal processing, parallel and distributed computing, fault-tolerant computing, and computer vision.
Department of General and Applied Physics
Here is one of the best places to get involved in the most wonderful and most complicated areas of knowledge. We train our students to push the boundaries of human understanding of space and time, of matter and energy from the nuclear to the cosmological. We offer the exploration of a universal nature to those who dare to know.
Department of Aerophysics and Space Research
The training program of the Department focuses on a practical approach to opportunities offered by the space industry and includes aerospace engineering, space science and space technology. Our research focuses on biosystems engineering, earth remote sensing, and natural resource exploration. Alumni include astronauts, policy-makers, high-ranking officer and researchers who work on the cutting edge of earth and space sciences in the most respected research centers and companies both in Russian and abroad.
Department of Molecular and Chemical Physics
Combining MIPT’s traditional program in pure physics and mathematics with deep studies in chemistry, the Department fosters unique specialists who conduct research in chemical dynamics and reaction mechanisms, materials and plasma chemistry as well as the physics of living systems. Our community comprises people who investigate radiochemistry and conduct experiments using laser technology.
Department of Physical and Quantum Electronics
Converging rigorous pure sciences with the power of our industry-academic partnerships, the Department provides training programs for students who wish to become outstanding researchers in the field of electronics. We explore new materials and create new methods in solid state electronic devices as well as in laser and optics systems providing sharpened efficiency for contemporary solutions in telecommunications, control systems, supercomputers and the aerospace industry. We dare to change the world..
Department of Aeromechanics and Flight Engineering
The Department prepares students for professional positions in the aerospace industry, government, and business by offering an intensive curriculum merged with cutting-edge research at Russia’s renowned Aviaindustry Cluster. Our program focuses on aeromechanics, control, propulsion and engineering problems of aircraft. The department is located in the city of Zhukovsky, Moscow Region.
Department of Control and Applied Mathematics
The Department provides training at the bachelor’s and master’s level in applied mathematics. Education programs are focused on mathematical modeling in fundamental and applied physics, mechanics and economics. We offer unique courses in supercomputing, artificial intelligence, system analysis and software engineering. .
Department of Problems of Physics and Energetics
The Department focuses on producing scientists trained to face a broad range of challenges caused by the rapid growth of human civilization in the 21st century. We offer programs related to quantum optics, extreme states of matter, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental interactions and plasma energetics. We endeavor to conduct experiments beyond the limits of present-day science and we are proud of our graduates, who are involved in investigating the most spectacular phenomena of the universe.
Department of Innovation and High Technology
Computers and information technologies have become indispensable to modern life. The Department prepare our students to give rise to new innovations, to be eager in studying computer science, to explore the cyber-universe and to implement their ideas in the real world with the help of our industry-academic partnerships with the world’s largest software companies and high-tech corporations.
Department of Biological and Medical Physics
Thanks to MIPT’s unique teaching style and structure the Department is merging medicine, biology and chemistry with fundamental physics and mathematics in order to create new methods for the medical industry and technologies for pharmaceutical production. Our alumni include entrepreneurs, educators and researchers pushing the boundaries of life sciences.
Department of Nano-, Bio-, Information Technology and Cognitive Science
Converging nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science into a holistic art of cognition, we have acquired a new instrument for understanding our world and making it a better place. The NBIC department was established in the close cooperation with the renowned NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, which has been a hub of cutting-edge science since the Soviet era. The department is located in Moscow.
Department of Higher School of Systems Engineering is an interfaculty department conducting training for master’s students in 222300, “High Technology and Economics of Innovation.” The main objective of the program is the training of leaders in technological fields.
In late 1945 and early 1946, a group of prominent Soviet scientists, including in particular the future Nobel Prize winner Pyotr Kapitsa, lobbied the government for the creation of a higher educational institution radically different from the type established in the Soviet system of higher education. Applicants, carefully selected by challenging examinations and personal interviews, would be taught by, and work together with, prominent scientists. Each student would follow a personalized curriculum created to match his or her particular areas of interest and specialization. This system would later become known as the Phystech System.
In a letter to Stalin in February 1946, Kapitsa argued for the need for such a school, which he tentatively called the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, to better maintain and develop the country’s defense potential. The institute would follow the principles outlined above, and was supposed to be governed by a board of directors of the leading research institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences. On March 10, 1946, the government issued a decree mandating the establishment of a “College of Physics and Technology”
For unknown reasons, the initial plan came to a halt in the summer of 1946. The exact circumstances are not documented, but the common assumption is that Kapitsa’s refusal to participate in the atomic bomb project, and his disfavor with the government and communist party that followed, cast a shadow over an independent school based largely on his ideas. Instead, a new government decree was issued on November 25, 1946 establishing the new school as a Department of Physics and Technology within Moscow State University. November 25 is celebrated as the date of MIPT’s founding.
Kapitsa foresaw that within a traditional educational institution, the new school would encounter bureaucratic obstacles, but even though Kapitsa’s original plan to create the new school as an independent organization did not come to fruition exactly as envisioned, its most important principles survived intact. The new Department enjoyed considerable autonomy within Moscow State University. Its facilities were in Dolgoprudny (the two buildings it occupied are still part of the present day campus), away from the MSU campus. It had its own independent admissions and education system, different from the one centrally mandated for all other universities. It was headed by the MSU “vice rector for special issues”—a position created specifically to shield the department from the University management.
As Kapitsa expected, the special status of the new school with its different “rules of engagement” caused much consternation and resistance within the university. The immediate cult status that Phystech gained among talented young people, drawn by the challenge and romanticism of working on the forefront of science and technology, and on projects of “government importance,” many of them classified, made it an untouchable rival of every other school in the country, including MSU’s own Department of Physics. At the same time, the increasing disfavor of Kapitsa with the government (in 1950 he was essentially under house arrest), and anti-semitic repressions of the late 1940s made Phystech an easy target of intrigues and accusations of “elitism” and “rootless cosmopolitanism.” In the summer of 1951, the Phystech department at MSU was shut down.
A group of academicians, backed by Air Force general Ivan Fedorovich Petrov, who was a Phystech supporter influential enough to secure Stalin’s personal approval on the issue, succeeded in re-establishing Phystech as an independent institute. On September 17, 1951, a government decree re-established Phystech as the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
Apart from Kapitsa, other prominent scientists who taught at MIPT in the years that followed included Nobel prize winners Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau, Alexandr Prokhorov, Vitaly Ginzburg; and Academy of Sciences members Sergey Khristianovich, Mikhail Lavrentiev, Mstislav Keldysh, Sergey Korolyov, and Boris Rauschenbach. MIPT alumni include Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, the 2010 winners of the Nobel Prize for Physics.
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