弗萊堡大學

弗萊堡大學

University of Freiburg Details

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概觀


The 弗萊堡大學 , 正式 弗賴堡的阿爾伯特·路德維希大學 is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, 巴登 - 符騰堡州, 德國.

學校始建於 1457 由哈布斯堡王朝作為維也納大學之後的第二所大學在奧地利哈布斯堡領地. 今天, 弗萊堡是德國第五古老的大學, 教學與人文的悠久傳統, 社會科學和自然科學. 這所大學是由 11 從德國各地以及來自院系和學生吸引 120 其他國家. 外國學生約佔 16% 總學生人數.

命名為學術界德國精英大學之一, 政治代表和媒體, the University of Freiburg stands amongst Europe’s top research and teaching institutions. With its long-standing reputation of excellence, 大學看起來既對過去, 保持其歷史的學術和文化遺產, 和未來, developing new methods and opportunities to meet the needs of a changing world. The University of Freiburg has been home to some of the greatest minds of the Western tradition, 包括這些傑出人物如海德格爾, 漢娜·阿倫特, 卡爾納普, 大衛·道貝, 約翰·埃克, 伽達默爾, 哈耶克, 胡塞爾, 弗里德里希·梅尼克, 和馬克斯·韋伯. 此外, 19 諾貝爾獎得主參加與弗萊堡大學和 15 學者榮獲最高的德國研究獎, 在萊布尼茨獎, 而在弗萊堡大學工作.

學校 / 高校 / 部門 / 培訓班 / 院系


  • 神學院
  • 法律系
  • Faculty of Economics and Behavioral Sciences
  • 醫學系
  • 語言學教師
  • 人文學院
  • 數學和物理學院
  • 化學與藥學院
  • 生物學院
  • Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources
  • 工程學部

歷史


開端 (15th Century)
在 1457 the Freiburg Cathedral was the site of thefoundation of a university. The financier and figure after whom the institution was named was Archduke Albert VI, of whose dominion, Western Austria, Freiburg was then a part. The “Albertina” was founded as a 綜合性大學, including all important faculties of the time: 神學, 法, 醫學, and Philosophy. Its purpose was to educate young theologians and administrators. Some of the first students lived in “Bursen” (旅館) on the site of what is now known as the “Old University,” where the first lectures also took place. Classes were held in 拉丁.

 

Success (16th Century)
A number of well-known humanists studied and taught at Freiburg’s university. They were dedicated to the ideals of education and tolerance and understood the invention of the printing press as a signal. One of them was MartinWaldseemüller, the first person ever to use the name “America” for the recently discovered continent in his world atlas. The Reformation was a topic of heated debate at the University of Freiburg, the authorities finally opting for Catholicism and loyalty to Austria. Aristocrats and bourgeois who sent their sons to the university to prepare for a diplomatic or military career ushered in new trends: French became popular, the university hired fencing and dancing teachers.
Jesuit Influence (17th Century)
The 17th century was marked by the rivalry between the confessions. 在 1620 the Catholic rulers introduced theJesuit Order at the faculties of theology and humanities. Although the order was regarded as modern and strong in education, its influence also led to severe restrictions in the curriculum. The Jesuits introduced theater to the University of Freiburg and strengthened the tradition of debating (How many angels fit on the tip of a needle?). The building known today as the “Old University” (after its destruction in World War II and its subsequent reconstruction) was originally built by the Jesuits over the 課程 of several decades and served as their theological college.
Reforms (18th Century)
The enlightened government administration had an ever increasing need for civil servants with practical skills, and the upper classes demanded a professional education. 在 1768 Maria Theresa thus introduced an extensive reform which curtailed the financial independence of educational institutions in the empire, including the University of Freiburg. The reform increased competition among students by adding more examinations, limited the length of semester breaks, introduced modern textbooks and practical instructional materials, and replaced the instructional form of reading verbatim from books with explanatory lectures – 在德國. 在 1773 the Pope dissolved the Jesuit Order (temporarily) in response to threats from several countries, and their theological college on Bertholdstraße was given to the university.
Expansion (19th Century)
As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the Breisgau region fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden 在 1805. 與此同時, the University of Freiburg lost all of its possessions west of the Rhine, and with them a large portion of its income. Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden, arranged an endowment for the university in 1820, thus ensuring its continued existence. In thanks, the University changed its name to “Alberto-Ludoviciana” in honor of both of its founding fathers. Also in these years, the first student corporations were formed in a wave of enthusiasm for the nationalistic cause and democratic ideals inspired by the French Revolution. 然而, their hopes for a republic were soon dashed in the bloody revolution of 1848. 在開始 1850 enrollment began to grow, soon reaching 1500. The natural sciences campus was built to accommodate the increased enrollment.
Contrasts (20th Century)
在 1900 the University of Freiburg began admitting women to studies – as the first university in Germany. 在 1902 the new University Library was opened (in what is today university building IV), 在 1911 the new main university building(today university building I) was dedicated, providing space for the 3000 students now enrolled. The tower of the building still contains the “Karzer,” a detention room in which students who had misbehaved were locked up as punishment. This privilege was banned in 1920. 在同一年, the new University Medical Center opened its doors on Hugstetter Straße.

On the top floor of university building I there is still a monument for students and employees of the university who were among the victims of the two world wars. In the heart of the same building, in the main foyer, the university erected a memorial 在 2005 to commemorate the almost 400 known employees and students of the University of Freiburg who suffered death, banishment, or severe discrimination under the National Socialist regime. 然而, many other victims remain unnamed: 過度 1500 persons were assigned to forced labor at the medical center, where there is also evidence of criminal medical interventions. The university followed the orders of the National Socialists, at times even with conviction. Martin Heidegger’s appointment as rector of the university in 1933, 例如, was celebrated as a “takeover.” Heidegger did not comment on his role as rector of the university until his death in 1976.

Several of Freiburg’s professors, including Walter Eucken, as well as their wives, were members of the opposition.

Along with the entire inner city of Freiburg, all university buildings were heavily damaged or destroyed in 1945. The university was able to save 75% of the materials from the flames, mostly books. By the fall of the same year, the French occupation authorities had already granted their approval for the reconstruction and reopening of the University of Freiburg. Before matriculating, each student had to put in 100 hours of manual labor to help with thereconstruction efforts.

直到 1949 denazification procedures were carried out for all university employees, but no more than ten years later almost all who had been fired were again working at the university. With the advent of the Cold War, an anti-communist stance was evidently regarded as more important than one’s behavior during the National Socialist era. The university experienced a boom in these years: 在 1957, on the University of Freiburg’s 500th anniversary, a new constitution was approved. The reconstruction was almost completed by this time, ground had been broken for new buildings like university building II, and the university now had a total of 10,000 學生們.

Not until 1968, when the student protests in Berlin and Frankfurt reached Freiburg, was the generation which had remained in power without interruption since the war called into question. The students’ battle cry was: “Unter den Talaren, Muff von tausend Jahren” (“Under the gowns, the stench of a thousand years”). The students demanded ademocratization of the universities, holding strikes and teach-ins and handing out flyers to support their cause. The student protests initiated a cultural transformation.

The following decades saw the expansion of the Faculty of Medicine and the natural sciences. 在 1995, the Faculty of Engineering was established, further expanding the spectrum of disciplines offered at the university. By the end of the century, 已經有 20,000 matriculated students at the University of Freiburg. Instruction and research were profiting from international exchange and enjoyed an excellent reputation abroad. This could be seen in the increasing number of international students and junior researchers who came to Freiburg to acquire further qualifications.

Accolades (21st Century)
在 2007 the University of Freiburg became one of nine top universities in Germany to be honored in the Excellence Initiative for their research.

The University of Freiburg was among the winners of the nationwide “Excellent Teaching” competition in 2009. Organized by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs and the Stifterverband for German Science and Research, the competition recognizes innovative instructional concepts.

The State Teaching Award, conferred yearly for already implemented instructional concepts at higher education institutions in Baden-Württemberg, has also gone regularly to lecturers at the University of Freiburg since it was first organized in 1993.

All of these accolades and the funding they produce contribute to the University of Freiburg’s goal of maintaining a competitive edge in the German higher education landscape.

在 2007 the University of Freiburg celebrated its 550-year anniversary 超過 300 public events. Several projects which will shape the further development of the university were launched during the festivities.

在 2007 the university opened the Uniseum, a museum documenting the university’s history and a forum for events, as well as the UniShop.

The board of trustees of the 2007 anniversary celebration established the “New University Endowment.” It is designed to provide funding for endowed professorships, international visiting lecturers, and scholarships for outstanding students.

最後, 在 2007 the University of Freiburg also held its first Innovation and Dialog Workshop. The workshops now bring experts from the university and external institutions together about once a year, for instance to develop a modern concept for the university or a vision for 2030.


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