- University of Gottingen
University of Gottingen
The University of Gottingen , eyaziwa ngokwethukela njengoba Georgia Augusta, iyinhlangano yomphakathi olunzulu iriseshi yaseyunivesithi edolobheni Gottingen, Germany. Yaqalwa ngo 1734 by George II, INkosi Enkulu YaseBrithani kanye Elector of Hanover, futhi ukuqala emakilasini 1737, inyuvesi iyona endala esifundazweni eLower Saxony kanye enkulu kunazo ukubhalwa umfundi, esimelela ngezithuba zawo 26,000. Ikhaya izibalo eziningi kuphawulwe, limele omunye izikhungo mlando kanye zendabuko yaseJalimane. Gottingen iye yabizwa ngokuthi “umuzi isayensi”.
Gottingen ingenye emanyuvesi ohlonishwa kakhulu eJalimane, ngaphambili osekelwa German Amayunivesithi Excellence Initiative. With ubulungu in Coimbra Group nasezindaweni ezizungeze 45 Nobel Prize abawinile, inyuvesi uyawuthanda nesikhumbuzo ezinkulu zamazwe onke. Inyuvesi igcina ukuxhumana obuqinile Research Institutes ezinkulu ezinze Gottingen kanye, ikakhulukazi Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community. With cishe 4.5 imiqulu million, the Gottingen State University Library lifaka phakathi yezincwadi emikhulu kunayo eJalimane.
Ngesisekelo impumelelo yayo ucwaningo nokufundisa, Georg-August-Universität Gottingen uhlose ukuba uthuthukise idumela layo international ngokugxila ezimfanelweni ezinhle ngendlela ekhethekile:
- Internationality – ukwandisa amathuba okudingeka ikhono layo ukuze lidonse ososayensi, izazi nabafundi abavela kwamanye amazwe; ukwandiswa kukajantshi amanethiwekhi international nokubambisana ngokuzama ukuletha ososayensi ucwaningo kanye young
- yokufundisa nokufunda Research-based – ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo ezihlobene nocwaningo-isifundo futhi ukuqeqeshwa occupationally egxile kanye nemfundo eyengeziwe izifundo, izikole graduate, kanye namaqembu ocwaningo junior lapho izazi abasha kanye nososayensi ukuqhuba ucwaningo ezimele
- Interdisciplinarity nokwehluka – kuciniswa ukubambisana phakathi Humanities kanye social, natural sciences kanye nokuphila, futhi kulondolozwe subject ukwehluka in izithakazelo okuxazulula izinkinga ukuze ikusasa
- ukuzimela – beqinisa self-umthwalo University njengoba Public Law Foundation, kuhlanganise nobabo amapulangwe alo, amandla kanye nezikhungo
- Cooperation nezikhungo non-university – nokwelula futhi institutionalizing ukusebenzisana ezifanele ucwaningo izikhungo yesayensi, commerce kanye nomphakathi
izikole / amakolishi / iminyango / izifundo / amandla
In 1734, King George II of Great Britain, who was also Elector of Hanover, gave his Prime Minister in Hanover, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, the order to establish a university in Göttingen to propagate the ideas of academic freedom and enlightenment at the times of the European Enlightenment. ekuqaleni, the only new buildings constructed for the opening of the university were a riding hall and a fencinghouse, while courses were taught in the Paulinerkirche and associated Dominican monastery, or in the homes of professors. No university auditorium was built until well into the 19th century.
Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 imiqulu.
In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.
By the university’s centenary in 1837, kwaziwa ngokuthi i- “university of law”, as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university’s students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..
Nokho, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 e 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicistWilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.
In the 19th century, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, andRudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory of “culpa in contraendo” and wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on the “Wall”, now known as “Bismarck Cottage”. According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.
Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and
In 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades. In 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl’s students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.
Kusuka 1921 ukuze 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, ngubani, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
To date, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the “Göttingen Nobel prize wonder”.
The German inventor of the jet engine, Pabst von Ohain, also studied aerodynamics in Goettingen under Ludwig Prandtl.
Social studies and the study of humanities continued to flourish. Edmund Husserl, the philosopher and known as the father ofphenomenology, taught here. Max Weber, the sociologist studied here for one term.
Ngalesi sikhathi, the German language became an international academic language. A number of dissertations in the UK and the US had German titles. One might be considered having had a complete academic training only when one had studied in Germany. Ngakho, many American students were proud of having studied in Germany, and the University of Göttingen had profound impacts on the US. A number of American politicians, abameli, historians and writers received their education from both Harvard and Göttingen. Ngokwesibonelo,Edward Everett, once Secretary of State and President of Harvard University, stayed in Göttingen for two years of study. George Ticknor spent two years studying classics in Göttingen. John Lothrop Motley, a diplomat and historian, even had personal friendship with Otto von Bismark during his two-year-long study in Göttingen. George Bancroft, a politician and historian, even received his PhD from the University of Göttingen in 1820.
Ngemva kweMpi Yezwe II, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. Kamuva, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here.Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.
Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.
Ngalesi sikhathi, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.
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