- University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
the University of St Andrews (ngokungekho eyaziwa ngokuba St Andrews University okanye St Andrews; ofinyezwe njenge yeST, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, wasemva nominals) na British zophando zoluntu kwiyunivesithi St Andrews, Fife, eScotland. Yeyona indala yeedyunivesithi fourancient of Scotland kunye neyunivesithi wesithathu indala ehlabathini IsiNgesi abathetha (zilandelayo iOxford Cambridge). St Andrews yasekwa phakathi 1410 yaye 1413, xa Avignon ntipope Benedict XIII wakhupha yenkomo kapopu kwiqela ekusekweni elincinane abefundisi Augustinian.
St Andrews yenziwe ukusuka kumaziko ngamaziko, kuquka iikholeji ezintathu wabavoti (United College, College St kaMariya, kwaye College St kaLeonard) yaye 18 academic schools organised into four faculties. The university occupies historic and modern buildings located throughout the town. Kunyaka wezifundo yahlulwe amagama amabini, Martinmas kunye Candlemas. Ekuhambeni kwexesha elide, over one-third of the town’s population is either a staff member or student of the university. The student body is notably diverse: phezu 120 beentlanga zimelwe phezu 45% abamkelwa yo yalo kumazwe ngaphandle UK; malunga-wesibhozo abafundi abasuka-EU kunye wesithathu eseleyo evela phesheya - 15% from North America alone. The university’s sport teams compete in BUCS competitions, and the student body is known for preserving ancient traditions such as Raisin Weekend, nkxu, kwaye ukunxitywa isinxibo olwahlukileyo zemfundo.
Oku ubekwa kwiyunivesithi yesithathu intle le United Kingdom kwiithebhile league yesizwe, ngasemva Oxbridge. The Guardian zeeteksi yokuqala United Kingdom Schools of Physics kunye ngeenkwenkwezi, Relations International, Ubunzululwazi bekhompyutha, Geography, neMathematika, whilst the Complete University Guide ranks Divinity and Middle Eastern and African Studies first. the Times Higher Education World Universities Ranking amagama St Andrews phakathi Top ehlabathini 50 kwiiyunivesithi beeSayensi zezeNtlalo, Arts kunye noLuntu. St Andrews na ulwaneliseko iphezulu umfundi (edibeneyo kuqala) phakathi zonke iiyunivesithi multi-nkululeko kwi-United Kingdom.
St Andrews na alumni ezininzi ulwando fakhalthi amanyeneyo, kuquka bezibalo ababalaseleyo, izazinzulu, abefundisi, zobulumko, nabezopolitiko. alumni yakutsha nje iquka ngowayesakuba nguMphathiswa First of Scotland Alex Salmond; KuNobhala of State woKhuselo Michael Fallon; HM British uNozakuzaku China Barbara Woodward; United States uNozakuzaku Hungary Colleen Bell; emkhenkceni igolide weebhayisekile Olimpiki Chris Hoy; kunye Royals Prince William, Isidwangube Cambridge, kwaye Catherine, LaseYork Cambridge. Ezintandathu Nobel Prize aba phakathi St Andrews’ nabaladeli Mvumbi: ezimbini Chemistry kunye Physiology okanye Medicine, enye nganye Peace and Literature.
St Andrews is a unique and captivating place, kunye neYunivesithi yinxalenye engundoqo umtsalane. Kwiinkulungwane ezisixhenxe yembali ukunxibelelanisa abafundi kunye kwidolophu, ekhokelela yamandulo ukanti namhlanje iziko okucacileyo namhlanje. For those interested in visiting or moving to St Andrews we recommend taking a look at the town information, leyo ichaza kumaziko namathuba avulekileyo kuluntu lwengingqi. Unokufumana ulwazi malunga nolawulo yeYunivesithi, imbali, kunye nesicwangciso ngekamva kwi candelo a ngezantsi.
Kule yokugqibela 600 kwiminyaka, kwiYunivesithi St Andrews iseke udumo njengenye kwamaziko ophando kunye nokufundisa elikhokelayo ehlabathini. namhlanje, sinikezela isakhiwo isidanga bhetyebhetye ngokusekelwe kukhetho lwakho specialism isifundo okanye uphando, creating an environment which nurtures inquisitive minds and a culture of shared learning.
Izikolo / iikholeji / iminyango / courses / amandla
- Art Imbali
- Imbali Ancient
- Classical Studies
- Ubunzululwazi bekhompyutha
- Biblical Studies
- iTestamente entsha
- Theological Studies
- Economics & imali
- English Language Teaching
- ifilim Studies (see Philosophical, Anthropological & ifilim Studies)
- Geography & Geosciences
- Earth & Sciences Environmental
- Uphuhliso oluphathekayo
- Relations International
- Mathematics & Statistics
- Modern Iilwimi
- Arabic department
- Persian department
- Comparative literature department
- Philosophical, Anthropological & ifilim Studies
- ifilim Studies
- Anthropology Social
- physics & ulwazi ngeenkwenkwezi (inc. Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics)
- Psychology & lokufumanisa
- Royal Conservatoire of Scotland (RCS)
- Anthropology Social (see Philosophical, Anthropological & ifilim Studies)
- Theology (see Divinity)
Scottish students in the middle ages were forced abroad to pursue their studies, with no national university to develop their academic abilities. by 1410 most had been driven to Paris from Oxford and Cambridge by the Wars of Scottish Independence with England. So when the Catholic church was divided by two rival popes — with Pope Boniface IX supported by the French cardinals while Scotland remained faithful to Pope Benedict XIII — Scottish students found themselves in a difficult position. The time had come to establish a seat of learning, of international standing, back home in Scotland.
St Andrews was the obvious choice — the seat of the greatest bishopric in Scotland and location of a monastery noted as a centre for learning. NgoMeyi 1410 a group of masters, mainly graduates of Paris, initiated a school of higher studies in St Andrews.
By February 1411 the school had established itself sufficiently to obtain a charter of incorporation and privileges from the Bishop of St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw. This granted the masters and students recognition as a properly constituted corporation, duly privileged and safeguarded for the pursuit of learning. kunjalo, recognised university status and the authority to grant degrees could only be conferred by the Pope or the Emperor as heads of Christendom.
Bishop Wardlaw turned to the exiled Pope Benedict XIII to seek his blessing. King James, despite being a prisoner of the English, added his weight to the petition. In return for Scotland’s loyalty, Pope Benedict readily agreed and on 28 EyeThupha 1413 full University status was conferred by a series of six papal bulls – one of which survives to this day in the University of St Andrews museum, MUSA.
So it was that the papal bulls began their five month journey, from the Spanish fortress in Peniscola where Pope Benedict was safely cloistered, over land and sea to St Andrews. They arrived in the town in February 1414 — to be welcomed with bells, bonfires, and great celebration.
The six bulls included the bull of foundation and a bull confirming Wardlaw’s charter of 1412. Although the text of all six is known, only the confirmation of Wardlaw’s grant survives in the original and still bears its bulla or lead seal.
The early years of the young university were not without turbulence. in 1426, King James tried to move the university to Perth. in 1470, several masters and students were expelled for attacking the Dean with bows and arrows. in 1544 the University banned beards, the carrying of weapons, gambling and football.
By the middle of the 16th century, St Andrews had grown to encompass three colleges — St Salvator’s (1450), St Leonard’s (1511) and St Mary’s (1538). The buildings of St Mary’s College and St Salvator’s Chapel date from this period.
From the 1500s to the 1700s the University enjoyed a period of mixed fortunes. During this time St Salvator’s and St Leonard’s Colleges joined to form the United College which still survives today in a greatly enlarged form.
In the 19th century the University made considerable progress in developing teaching and research in the arts, divinity and the biological and physical sciences. in 1897 the University was joined by a new academic centre in nearby Dundee and with it gained notable achievements in medical and applied science. This association ended in 1967 with the foundation of a separate University of Dundee.
Kwi 1980, St Andrews embarked on a broad programme of investment to boost its research capabilities, a strategy which has helped establish its reputation today as an international centre of research excellence.
in 2009, St Andrews became the first Scottish ancient to appoint a woman as Principal, recruiting Professor Louise Richardson from the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard, to lead it into its seventh century.
St Andrews recently celebrated 600 years of continuous existence during which time it has made an enduring contribution to the intellectual and cultural life of both Scotland and the wider world.
From mediaeval origins to modern thinking
International scholars have been coming to St Andrews to study, teachers to teach, and students to learn since the foundation in 1413. Through the centuries many great minds have been attracted to St Andrews:
- William Dunbar, imbongi (MA, 1479).
- John Napier, the inventor of logarithms (umfundi, 1563)
- James Gregory, designer of the Gregorian telescope (Regius professor of Mathematics, 1668).
- Benjamin Franklin (honorary Doctor of Laws, 1759).
- Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine (MD, 1792).
- John Stuart Mill, philosopher and economist (Ngqonyela, 1865).
- JM Barrie, author (Ngqonyela, 1919).
- Rudyard Kipling, author (Ngqonyela, 1922).
- Sir James Black, Nobel Prize winner in medicine (MB ChB, 1946).
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